A Gender Perspective on Self-Employment Entry and Performance as Self-Employed
Research on self-employment has increased during recent years and particular attention has been paid to self-employment dynamics and the factors influencing entry and exit rates from self-employment. Using a large panel data set for Sweden, this paper investigates variations in recruitment to self-employment and in self-employment performance by gender and by employment status prior to entering self-employment. As performance measures we use income from self-employment, number of employees, exit rates and destination after self-employment. We find that the probability of becoming self-employed is highest among men who are economically inactive and lowest among women who are wage-earners. Analysing self-employment performance, we find that men have higher incomes than women. Self-employed women more often than self-employed men have employees. For both men and women those who enter from unemployment or inactivity are less successful in terms of income and the probability of having employees than those who enter from paid employment. When exits are divided into paid employment and other employment status, we find that those who entered from unemployment or inactivity face a higher risk of returning to one of these states.
|Date of creation:||Jul 2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Du Rietz, Anita & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000.
"Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 1-10, February.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Du Rietz, Anita, 1999. "Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis," Working Paper Series 521, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Martinez-Granado, Maite, 2002. "Self-Employment and Labour Market Transitions: A Multiple State Model," CEPR Discussion Papers 3661, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Pernilla Andersson, 2007. "Do the unemployed become successful entrepreneurs?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 28(7), pages 604-626, October.
- Kristy Eastough & Paul W. Miller, 2004. "The Gender Wage Gap in Paid- and Self-Employment in Australia," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(3), pages 257-276, 09.
- Kristy Eastough & Paul W. Miller, 2003. "The Gender Wage Gap in Paid and Self-Employment in Australia," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 03-24, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
- Verheul, I. & Thurik, A.R. & Grilo, I., 2008. "Explaining Preferences and Actual Involvement in Self-Employment: New Insights into the Role of Gender," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2008-003-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- Roy Thurik & Ingrid Verheul & Isabel Grilo, 2010. "Explaining Preferences and Actual Involvement in Self-Employment: New Insights into the role of Gender," Scales Research Reports H200803, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Yannis Georgellis & Howard Wall, 2005. "Gender differences in self-employment," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-342.
- Yannis Georgellis & Howard J. Wall, 2004. "Gender differences in self-employment," Working Papers 1999-008, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Wellington, Alison J., 2006. "Self-employment: the new solution for balancing family and career?," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 357-386, June.
- Andersson Joona, Pernilla & Wadensjö, Eskil, 2006. "Employees Who Become Self-Employed: Do Labour Income and Wages Have an Impact?," IZA Discussion Papers 1971, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Cowling, Marc & Taylor, Mark, 2001. "Entrepreneurial Women and Men: Two Different Species?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 167-175, May.
- Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-535, June.
- Leung, Danny, 2006. "The male/female earnings gap and female self-employment," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 759-779, October.
- Greg Hundley, 2001. "Why Women Earn Less Than Men in Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Research, Transaction Publishers, vol. 22(4), pages 817-829, October.
- Parker,Simon C., 2006. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632, September.
- Parker,Simon C., 2004. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521828130, September.