Employees Who Become Self-Employed: Do Labour Income and Wages Have an Impact?
This paper analyzes the self-employment decision among Swedish-born male employees. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the impact of the relation between the actual and the predicted income on the probability to become self-employed. The predicted income is calculated from a standard income regression with controls for age, education, family status, family background and place of residence. By construction of a ratio between the actual and the predicted income we identify three groups of employees: (1) employees who have an actual income lower than the predicted income (underpaid), (2) employees with an actual income close to the predicted one, and (3) employees with an actual income higher than the predicted one (overpaid). The first question is if individuals who are "overpaid" or "underpaid" are more likely to become self-employed than those who are paid as we can expect. Our main finding is that employees who receive an income that differs from the one predicted by the income regression are more likely to become self-employed. We also analyse the effect of the ratio on four different measures of success as self-employed: income from self-employment, number of employees, turnover of the firm, and the probability to have a firm registered as a limited liability company. The general conclusion is that those who performed well as employees are also more successful as self-employed.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2006|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Thurik, A. Roy & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André & Audretsch, David B., 2008.
"Does self-employment reduce unemployment?,"
Journal of Business Venturing,
Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 673-686, November.
- David B. Audretsch & Roy Thurik & Andre van Stel & M.A. Carree, 2006. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2005-07, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
- André van Stel & Roy Thurik & David Audretsch & Martin Carree, 2005. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," Scales Research Reports N200504, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- André van Stel & Roy Thurik & David Audretsch & Martin Carree, 2007. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," Scales Research Reports H200709, EIM Business and Policy Research.
- Audretsch, David B & Carree, Martin A & Thurik, A R Roy & van Stel, André, 2005. "Does Self-Employment Reduce Unemployment?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5057, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- A. Roy Thurik & Martin A. Carree & Andre van Stel & David B. Audretsch, 2007. "Does Self-Employment reduce Unemployment?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-089, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
- Michael Hout & Harvey Rosen, 2000.
"Self-Employment, Family Background, and Race,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 670-692.
- Yannis Georgellis & Howard J. Wall, 2004.
"Gender differences in self-employment,"
1999-008, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Dolton, Peter J & Makepeace, G H, 1990. "Self Employment among Graduates," Bulletin of Economic Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(1), pages 35-53, January.
- David G. Blanchflower, 2004. "Self-Employment: More may not be better," NBER Working Papers 10286, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Constant, Amelie F. & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2004. "The Making of Entrepreneurs in Germany: Are Native Men and Immigrants Alike?," IZA Discussion Papers 1440, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Mats Hammarstedt, 2006. "The predicted earnings differential and immigrant self-employment in Sweden," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(6), pages 619-630.
- Rees, Hedley & Shah, Anup, 1986. "An Empirical Analysis of Self-employment in the U.K," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 1(1), pages 95-108, January.
- Martinez-Granado, Maite, 2002. "Self-Employment and Labour Market Transitions: A Multiple State Model," CEPR Discussion Papers 3661, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Parker,Simon C., 2006.
"The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521030632, December.
- Parker,Simon C., 2004. "The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521828130, December.
- Edvard Johansson, 2000. "Self-employment and the predicted earnings differential - evidence from Finland," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 45-55, Spring.
- Andersson Joona, Pernilla & Wadensjö, Eskil, 2004. "Self-Employed Immigrants in Denmark and Sweden: A Way to Economic Self-Reliance?," IZA Discussion Papers 1130, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Taylor, Mark P, 1996. "Earnings, Independence or Unemployment: Why Become Self-Employed?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(2), pages 253-266, May.
- Clark, Kenneth & Drinkwater, Stephen, 2000. "Pushed out or pulled in? Self-employment among ethnic minorities in England and Wales," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 603-628, September.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1971. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.