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Self-Employment: A Way to End Unemployment? Empirical Evidence from German Pseudo-Panel Data


  • Glocker, Daniela

    () (CEP, London School of Economics)

  • Steiner, Viktor

    () (Free University of Berlin)


This paper contributes to the policy-relevant question whether self-employment is a way out of (long-term) unemployment. We estimate the relationship between the entry rate into self-employment and previous (long-term) unemployment on the basis of pseudo-panel data for Germany in the period 1996-2002. The estimation method accounts for cohort fixed effects and measurement errors induced by the pseudo panel structure. We find that previous (long-term) unemployment significantly increases entry rates into self-employment for both men and women. These effects are quantitatively important, both in absolute terms and compared to other potential determinants of self-employment transitions, such as age, the level of vocational qualification and certain household characteristics.

Suggested Citation

  • Glocker, Daniela & Steiner, Viktor, 2007. "Self-Employment: A Way to End Unemployment? Empirical Evidence from German Pseudo-Panel Data," IZA Discussion Papers 2561, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2561

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Martinez-Granado, Maite, 2002. "Self-Employment and Labour Market Transitions: A Multiple State Model," CEPR Discussion Papers 3661, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Fossen, Frank M. & Steiner, Viktor, 2006. "Income Taxes and Entrepreneurial Choice: Empirical Evidence from Germany," IZA Discussion Papers 2164, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    6. Cressy, Robert, 2000. "Credit rationing or entrepreneurial risk aversion? An alternative explanation for the Evans and Jovanovic finding," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 235-240, February.
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    10. Hans J. Baumgartner & Marco Caliendo, 2008. "Turning Unemployment into Self-Employment: Effectiveness of Two Start-Up Programmes," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 70(3), pages 347-373, June.
    11. Holtz-Eakin Douglas & Rosen Harvey S, 2005. "Cash Constraints and Business Start-Ups: Deutschmarks Versus Dollars," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 4(1), pages 1-28, February.
    12. Friedhelm PFEIFFER & Winfried POHLMEIER, 1992. "Income, Uncertainty and the Probability of Self-Employment," Discussion Papers (REL - Recherches Economiques de Louvain) 1992032, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    13. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander Kritikos, 2009. "Risk attitudes of nascent entrepreneurs–new evidence from an experimentally validated survey," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 153-167, February.
    14. Amelie Constant & Klaus Zimmermann, 2006. "The Making of Entrepreneurs in Germany: Are Native Men and Immigrants Alike?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 279-300, April.
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    17. Foti, Alessandro & Vivarelli, Marco, 1994. "An Econometric Test of the Self-Employment Model: The Case of Italy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 81-93, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Taylor, Mark P., 2011. "Self-employment flows and persistence: a European comparative analysis," ISER Working Paper Series 2011-26, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    2. Block, Joern & Kohn, Karsten, 2011. "Sozialpolitische Ziele der Gründungsförderung am Beispiel von Gründungen aus der Arbeitslosigkeit
      [Social policy as a motivation for start-up subsidies: supporting start-ups out of unemployment]
      ," MPRA Paper 30775, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Milo Bianchi, 2012. "Financial Development, Entrepreneurship, and Job Satisfaction," Post-Print hal-01629748, HAL.
    4. Göggel Kathrin & Gräb Johannes & Pfeiffer Friedhelm, 2007. "Selbständigkeit in Europa 1991–2003: Empirische Evidenz mit Länderdaten / Self-Employment in 15 European Countries 1991–2003," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 227(2), pages 153-167, April.
    5. Giuliano Guerra & Roberto Patuelli & Rico Maggi, 2012. "Ethnic concentration, cultural identity and immigrant self-employment in Switzerland," Chapters,in: Migration Impact Assessment, chapter 4, pages 147-171 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    6. Aysit Tansel & H. Mehmet Taşçı, 2010. "Hazard Analysis of Unemployment Duration by Gender in a Developing Country: The Case of Turkey," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 24(4), pages 501-530, December.
    7. repec:jns:jbstat:v:227:y:2007:i:2:p:153-167 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Michaelides, Marios & Benus, Jacob, 2012. "Are self-employment training programs effective? Evidence from Project GATE," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 695-705.
    9. Milo Bianchi, 2012. "Financial Development, Entrepreneurship, and Job Satisfaction," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 94(1), pages 273-286, February.
    10. Halicioglu, Ferda & Yolac, Sema, 2015. "Testing the impact of unemployment on self-employment: empirical evidence from OECD countries," MPRA Paper 65026, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Marios Michaelides, 2017. "Nascent Entrepreneurship and Race: Evidence from the GATE Experiment," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 02-2017, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.
    12. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5067 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Michaelides, Marios, 2010. "Race and self-employment: The role of training programs, self-employment background, and access to financing," MPRA Paper 20884, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Marios Michaelides & Scott Davis, 2016. "From unemployment to self-employment: the role of entrepreneurship training," University of Cyprus Working Papers in Economics 09-2016, University of Cyprus Department of Economics.

    More about this item


    self-employment; entrepreneurship; entry rate; start-ups; unemployment; pseudo-panel; age and cohort effects;

    JEL classification:

    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J64 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Unemployment: Models, Duration, Incidence, and Job Search
    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions

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