Gender, Wages, and Social Security in China’s Industrial Sector
This study compares average earnings and productivities for men and women employed in roughly 200,000 Chinese industrial enterprises. Women’s average wages lag behind men’s wages by 11%, and this result is robust to the inclusion of non-wage income in the form of social insurance payments. The gender-wage gap is wider among workers with more than 12 years of education (28%), mainly because of the higher relative wages received by skilled men in foreign-invested firms. Women’s average productivity falls behind men’s productivity by a larger margin than the gap in earnings, and the null-hypothesis of earnings discrimination is thereby rejected. Equal average wages between men and women are found among firms located in China’s Special Economic Zones, and also among some light industrial sectors with high shares of female employees. Market reform hence appears to have improved women’s relative incomes.
|Date of creation:||30 Mar 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Box 55665, SE-102 15 Stockholm, Sweden|
Phone: +46 8 665 4500
Fax: +46 8 665 4599
Web page: http://www.ifn.se/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Jefferson, Gary H. & Su, Jian, 2006. "Privatization and restructuring in China: Evidence from shareholding ownership, 1995-2001," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 146-166, March.
- Cristian Bartolucci, 2009.
"Gender Wage Gaps Reconsidered: A Structural Approach Using Matched Employer-Employee Data,"
Carlo Alberto Notebooks
116, Collegio Carlo Alberto, revised 2010.
- Cristian Bartolucci, 2013. "Gender Wage Gaps Reconsidered: A Structural Approach Using Matched Employer-Employee Data," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 48(4), pages 998-1034.
- Meiyan Wang & Fang Cai, 2008. "Gender Earnings Differential in Urban China," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(2), pages 442-454, 05.
- Hellerstein, Judith K & Neumark, David & Troske, Kenneth R, 1999.
"Wages, Productivity, and Worker Characteristics: Evidence from Plant-Level Production Functions and Wage Equations,"
Journal of Labor Economics,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(3), pages 409-46, July.
- Judith K. Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth R. Troske, 1996. "Wages, Productivity, and Worker Characteristics: Evidence from Plant-Level Production Functions and Wage Equations," NBER Working Papers 5626, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- ASANO Hirokatsu & KAWAGUCHI Daiji, 2007.
"Male-Female Wage and Productivity Differentials: A Structural Approach Using Japanese Firm-level Panel Data,"
07020, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
- Daiji Kawaguchi, 2004. "Male-Female Wage and Productivity Differentials: A Structural Approach Using Japanese Firm-Level Panel Data," Econometric Society 2004 Australasian Meetings 303, Econometric Society.
- Vodopivec, Milan & Tong, Minna Hahn, 2008. "China : improving unemployment insurance," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 44779, The World Bank.
- Pun Ngai, 2007. "Gendering the dormitory labor system: production, reproduction, and migrant labor in south China," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3-4), pages 239-258.
- Bergmann, Barbara R, 1971. "The Effect on White Incomes of Discrimination in Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(2), pages 294-313, March-Apr.
- Julien Burda, 2007. "Chinese women after the accession to the world trade organization: A legal perspective on women's labor rights," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3-4), pages 259-285.
- Millimet Daniel L & Wang Le, 2006. "A Distributional Analysis of the Gender Earnings Gap in Urban China," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-50, February.
- Eli Berman & John Bound & Zvi Griliches, 1994. "Changes in the Demand for Skilled Labor within U. S. Manufacturing: Evidence from the Annual Survey of Manufactures," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(2), pages 367-397.
- Gunseli Berik & Xiao-yuan Dong & Gale Summerfield, 2007. "China's Transition and Feminist Economics," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3-4), pages 1-33.
- Fleisher, Belton M. & Wang, Xiaojun, 2004. "Skill differentials, return to schooling, and market segmentation in a transition economy: the case of Mainland China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 315-328, February.
- Timothy Dunne & John Haltiwanger & Kenneth R. Troske, 1996.
"Technology and Jobs: Secular Changes and Cyclical Dynamics,"
NBER Working Papers
5656, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dunne, Timothy & Haltiwanger, John & Troske, Kenneth R., 1997. "Technology and jobs: secular changes and cyclical dynamics," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(1), pages 107-178, June.
- Timothy Dunne & Kenneth R Troske & John Haltiwanger, 1996. "Technology and Jobs: Secular Changes and Cyclical Dynamics," Working Papers 96-7, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
- Isabelle Huault & V. Perret & S. Charreire-Petit, 2007. "Management," Post-Print halshs-00337676, HAL.
- Giles, John & Park, Albert & Cai, Fang, 2006. "Reemployment of dislocated workers in urban China: The roles of information and incentives," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 582-607, September.
- Björn Gustafsson & Shi Li, 2000. "Economic transformation and the gender earnings gap in urban China," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 305-329.
- Xin Meng & Junsen Zhang & Pak-Wai Liu, 2000. "Sectoral gender wage differentials and discrimination in the transitional Chinese economy," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 331-352.
- Maurer-Fazio, Margaret & Hughes, James, 2002.
"The Effects of Market Liberalization on the Relative Earnings of Chinese Women,"
Journal of Comparative Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 709-731, December.
- Margaret Maurer-Fazio & James Hughes, 2002. "The Effects of Market Liberalization on the Relative Earnings of Chinese Women," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 460, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Peng, Kelly Z. & Ngo, Hang-Yue & Shi, Junqi & Wong, Chi-Sum, 2009. "Gender differences in the work commitment of Chinese workers: An investigation of two alternative explanations," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 323-335, July.
- Altonji, Joseph G. & Blank, Rebecca M., 1999.
"Race and gender in the labor market,"
Handbook of Labor Economics,
in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 48, pages 3143-3259
- Appleton, Simon & Knight, John & Song, Lina & Xia, Qingjie, 2002. "Labor retrenchment in China: Determinants and consequences," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(2-3), pages 252-275.
- Dong, Xiao-yuan & Zhang, Liqin, 2009. "Economic transition and gender differentials in wages and productivity: Evidence from Chinese manufacturing enterprises," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 144-156, January.
- Yueping Song & Xiao-yuan Dong, 2011. "Gender and Occupational Mobility in Urban China during the Economic Transition," Departmental Working Papers 2011-01, The University of Winnipeg, Department of Economics.
- Gary Jefferson & Thomas Rawski & Yifan Zhang, 2008. "Productivity growth and convergence across China's industrial economy," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 121-140.
- Ng, Ying Chu, 2004. "Economic development, human capital, and gender earnings differentials in China," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 587-603, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:0827. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Elisabeth Gustafsson)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.