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A Cross-Country Index of Intellectual Property Rights in Pharmaceutical Innovations

Author

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  • Ming Liu

    (Deptartment of Finance, Nankai University)

  • Sumner La Croix

    (Department of Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa)

Abstract

Building on the seminal work of Ginarte and Park (1997), we develop an index of property rights in pharmaceutical innovations, the Pharmaceutical Intellectual Property Protection (PIPP) Index, for 154 countries spanning 1960 to 2005. It incorporates 5 types of property rights in pharmaceuticals; 6 statutory measures of enforcement; and adherence to 3 international agreements providing for the grant and enforcement of rights to foreigners. For both developing and developed countries, the PIPP Index starts at low levels in 1960, increases slowly through the early 1990s, and then sharply increases due to minimum standards set by the 1995 TRIPS Agreement.
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Suggested Citation

  • Ming Liu & Sumner La Croix, 2014. "A Cross-Country Index of Intellectual Property Rights in Pharmaceutical Innovations," Working Papers 201408, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hai:wpaper:201408
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    File URL: http://www.economics.hawaii.edu/research/workingpapers/WP_14-8.pdf
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    Cited by:

    1. Campi, Mercedes & Nuvolari, Alessandro, 2015. "Intellectual property protection in plant varieties: A worldwide index (1961–2011)," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 951-964.
    2. Liu, Ming & La Croix, Sumner, 2015. "A cross-country index of intellectual property rights in pharmaceutical inventions," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 206-216.
    3. Abdulkadir Civan & Michael Maloney, 2017. "Launch Decisions of Pharmaceutical Companies," Journal of Economics and Financial Analysis, Tripal Publishing House, vol. 1(1), pages 35-58.
    4. Ming Liu & Sumner la Croix, 2013. "A Cross-Country Index of Intellectual Property Rights in Pharmaceutical Innovations," Working Papers 201313, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.
    5. Ming Liu & Sumner LaCroix, 2011. "The Impact of Stronger Property Rights in Pharmaceuticals on Innovation in Developed and Developing Countries," Working Papers 201116, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Department of Economics.

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    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F53 - International Economics - - International Relations, National Security, and International Political Economy - - - International Agreements and Observance; International Organizations
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law
    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • O34 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital

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