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Modeling for Determinants of Human Trafficking

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  • Seo-Young Cho

    () (University of Goettingen / Germany)

Abstract

This study aims to identify robust push and pull factors of human trafficking. I test for the robustness of 78 push and 67 pull factors suggested in the literature. By employing an extreme bound analysis, running more than two million regressions with all possible combinations of variables for up to 180 countries during the period of 1995-2010, I show that crime prevalence robustly explains human trafficking prevalence both in destination and origin countries. My finding also implies that a low level of gender equality and development may have constraining effects on human trafficking outflows, contrary to expectations. The linkage between migration and human trafficking is less clear, and institutional quality matters more in origin countries than destinations.

Suggested Citation

  • Seo-Young Cho, 2012. "Modeling for Determinants of Human Trafficking," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 216, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:got:iaidps:216
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Alesina, Alberto & Devleeschauwer, Arnaud & Easterly, William & Kurlat, Sergio & Wacziarg, Romain, 2003. "Fractionalization," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 8(2), pages 155-194, June.
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    3. Martin Gassebner & Michael J. Lamla & James Raymond Vreeland, 2013. "Extreme Bounds of Democracy," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 57(2), pages 171-197, April.
    4. Gil S. Epstein & Ira N. Gang, 2010. "Migration and Culture," Working Papers 2010-17, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    5. Guido Friebel & Sergei Guriev, 2006. "Smuggling Humans: A Theory of Debt-financed Migration," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(6), pages 1085-1111, December.
    6. Mayer, Thierry & Zignago, Soledad, 2006. "Notes on CEPII’s distances measures," MPRA Paper 26469, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Soares, Rodrigo R., 2004. "Development, crime and punishment: accounting for the international differences in crime rates," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 155-184, February.
    8. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
    9. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1997. "I Just Ran Two Million Regressions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(2), pages 178-183, May.
    10. Danailova-Trainor, Gergana. & Belser, Patrick., 2006. "Globalization and the illicit market for human trafficking : an empirical analysis of supply and demand," ILO Working Papers 993953733402676, International Labour Organization.
    11. Randall Akee & Arnab K. Basu & Arjun Bedi & Nancy H. Chau, 2014. "Transnational Trafficking, Law Enforcement, and Victim Protection: A Middleman Trafficker's Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(2), pages 349-386.
    12. Akee, Randall K. Q. & Basu, Arnab K. & Chau, Nancy & Khamis, Melanie, 2010. "Ethnic Fragmentation, Conflict, Displaced Persons and Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 5142, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    14. Cho, Seo-Young & Dreher, Axel & Neumayer, Eric, 2010. "The spread of anti-trafficking policies: Evidence from a new index," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 119, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    15. Francesca Bettio & Tushar Nandi, 2010. "Evidence on women trafficked for sexual exploitation: A rights based analysis," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 15-42, February.
    16. Cho, Seo-Young & Dreher, Axel & Neumayer, Eric, 2013. "Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 67-82.
    17. Seo-Young Cho, 2011. "Integrating Equality - Globalization, Women’s Rights, Son Preference and Human Trafficking," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 73, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    18. Omar Mahmoud, Toman & Trebesch, Christoph, 2009. "The Economic Drivers of Human Trafficking: Micro-Evidence from Five Eastern European Countries," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 39939, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    19. repec:ilo:ilowps:395373 is not listed on IDEAS
    20. Di Tommaso Maria Laura & Shima Isilda & Steinar Strom & Bettio Francesca, 2007. "As Bad as it Gets: Well Being Deprivation of Sexually Exploited Trafficked women," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 200703, University of Turin.
    21. Danailova-Trainor, Gergana. & Belser, Patrick., 2006. "Globalization and the illicit market for human trafficking : an empirical analysis of supply and demand," ILO Working Papers 993953393402676, International Labour Organization.
    22. Niklas Jakobsson & Andreas Kotsadam, 2013. "The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 87-107, February.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Niklas Potrafke, 2016. "Policies against human trafficking: the role of religion and political institutions," Economics of Governance, Springer, vol. 17(4), pages 353-386, November.
    2. Mohammad Abdul Munim Joarder & Paul W. Miller, 2014. "Empirical Evidence on Human Trafficking and Migration-Debt Contracts in Bangladesh," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(3), pages 399-412, March.
    3. Seo-Young Cho & Axel Dreher & Eric Neumayer, 2014. "Determinants of Anti-Trafficking Policies: Evidence from a New Index," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 116(2), pages 429-454, April.
    4. Niklas Potrafke, 2015. "The Evidence on Globalisation," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 509-552, March.
    5. Jakobsson, Niklas & Kotsadam, Andreas, 2015. "The Economics of Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation," Memorandum 07/2015, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    6. Seo-Young Cho, 2012. "Integrating Equality: Globalization, Women's Rights, and Human Trafficking," Economics of Security Working Paper Series 69, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    7. Seo-Young Cho & Axel Dreher & Eric Neumayer, 2012. "The Determinants of Anti-trafficking Policies: Evidence from a New Index," Economics of Security Working Paper Series 72, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    8. Mohammad Abdul Munim Joarder & Paul W. Miller, 2013. "A Theoretical Perspective on Human Trafficking and Migration-Debt Contracts," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(10), pages 1332-1343, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Human trafficking: push and pull factors: robustness; extreme bound analysis;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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