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Human Trafficking, a Shadow of Migration: Evidence from Germany


  • Seo-Young Cho


This paper empirically analyzes the causal relationship between migration and human trafficking inflows into Germany during the period between 2001 and 2010. My results suggest that migrant networks, measured by migrant stocks from a specific source country, increase the illicit, exploitative form of migration - human trafficking - from that respective country. However, the network effect varies across different income levels of source countries. The significant, positive effect of migrant networks decreases as the income level increases, and furthermore the effect is insignificant for high income countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Seo-Young Cho, 2012. "Human Trafficking, a Shadow of Migration: Evidence from Germany," Economics of Security Working Paper Series 76, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:diw:diweos:diweos76

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Gil S. Epstein & Ira N. Gang, 2010. "Migration and Culture," Working Papers 2010-17, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    2. Mckenzie, David & Rapoport, Hillel, 2007. "Network effects and the dynamics of migration and inequality: Theory and evidence from Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 1-24, September.
    3. Omar Mahmoud, Toman & Trebesch, Christoph, 2009. "The economic drivers of human trafficking: micro-evidence from five Eastern European countries," Kiel Working Papers 1480, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    4. Seo-Young Cho, 2012. "Integrating Equality: Globalization, Women's Rights, and Human Trafficking," Economics of Security Working Paper Series 69, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    5. Niklas Jakobsson & Andreas Kotsadam, 2013. "The law and economics of international sex slavery: prostitution laws and trafficking for sexual exploitation," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 87-107, February.
    6. Greene, William, 2010. "Testing hypotheses about interaction terms in nonlinear models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 291-296, May.
    7. Pedersen, Peder J. & Pytlikova, Mariola & Smith, Nina, 2008. "Selection and network effects--Migration flows into OECD countries 1990-2000," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(7), pages 1160-1186, October.
    8. Randall Akee & Arnab K. Basu & Arjun Bedi & Nancy H. Chau, 2014. "Transnational Trafficking, Law Enforcement, and Victim Protection: A Middleman Trafficker's Perspective," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(2), pages 349-386.
    9. Cho, Seo-Young & Dreher, Axel & Neumayer, Eric, 2013. "Does Legalized Prostitution Increase Human Trafficking?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 67-82.
    10. Akee, Randall K. Q. & Basu, Arnab K. & Chau, Nancy & Khamis, Melanie, 2010. "Ethnic Fragmentation, Conflict, Displaced Persons and Human Trafficking: An Empirical Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 5142, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    11. Andreas Forø Tollefsen & Håvard Strand & Halvard Buhaug, 2012. "PRIO-GRID: A unified spatial data structure," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 49(2), pages 363-374, March.
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    Cited by:

    1. Boxell, Levi, 2016. "A Drought-Induced African Slave Trade?," MPRA Paper 69853, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Human trafficking; Migration; Network effects;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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