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In-Kind Finance

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  • Tore Ellingsen
  • Mike Burkart

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Abstract

It is typically less profitable for an opportunistic borrower to divert inputs than to divert cash. Suppliers, therefore, may lend more liberally than banks. This simple argument is at the core of our contract theoretic model of trade credit in competitive markets. The model implies that trade credit and bank credit can be either complements or substitutes depending on, amongst other things, the borrower's wealth. The model also explains why firms both take and give costly trade credit even when the borrowing rate exceeds the lending rate. Finally, the model suggests reasons for why trade credit is more prevalent in less developed credit markets and for why accounts payable of large unrated firms are more countercyclical than those of small firms.
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  • Tore Ellingsen & Mike Burkart, 2002. "In-Kind Finance," FMG Discussion Papers dp421, Financial Markets Group.
  • Handle: RePEc:fmg:fmgdps:dp421
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    Cited by:

    1. Madestam, Andreas, 2014. "Informal finance: A theory of moneylenders," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(C), pages 157-174.
    2. Pol Antràs & C. Fritz Foley, 2015. "Poultry in Motion: A Study of International Trade Finance Practices," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 123(4), pages 853-901.
    3. Berger, Allen N. & Udell, Gregory F., 2005. "A more complete conceptual framework for financing of small and medium enterprises," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3795, The World Bank.
    4. Mike Burkart & Tore Ellingsen, 2004. "In-Kind Finance: A Theory of Trade Credit," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 569-590, June.
    5. Schmidt-Eisenlohr, Tim, 2013. "Towards a theory of trade finance," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 96-112.
    6. Cyril Monnet & Frederic Boissay, 2004. "Bankruptcy in Credit Chains," Econometric Society 2004 North American Winter Meetings 133, Econometric Society.
    7. Kenshi Taketa & Gregory F. Udell, 2007. "Lending Channels and Financial Shocks: The Case of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Trade Credit and the Japanese Banking Crisis," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 25(2), pages 1-44, November.
    8. Hyndman, Kyle & Serio, Giovanni, 2010. "Competition and inter-firm credit: Theory and evidence from firm-level data in Indonesia," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 88-108, September.
    9. Nancy Huyghebaert & Linda Gucht & Cynthia Hulle, 2007. "The Choice between Bank Debt and Trace Credit in Business Start-ups," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 435-452, December.
    10. Leora Klapper & Luc Laeven & Raghuram Rajan, 2012. "Trade Credit Contracts," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 25(3), pages 838-867.
    11. Guido De Blasio, 2003. "Does Trade Credit Substitute Bank Credit? Evidence From Firm-Level Data," IMF Working Papers 03/166, International Monetary Fund.
    12. Massimo Omiccioli, 2005. "Trade Credit as Collateral," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 553, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    13. Mitchell Berlin, 2003. "Trade credit: why do production firms act as financial intermediaries?," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue Q3, pages 21-28.
    14. Guido De Blasio, 2004. "Does trade credit substitute for bank credit?," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 498, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    15. Daisuke Tsuruta, 2010. "How Do Small Businesses Finance their Growth Opportunities? – The Case of Recovery from the Lost Decade in Japan?," GRIPS Discussion Papers 09-19, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
    16. Andreas Madestam, 2011. "The Social Cost of a Credit Monopoly," Working Papers 422, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    17. Boissay, Frédéric, 2006. "Credit chains and the propagation of financial distress," Working Paper Series 573, European Central Bank.
    18. TSURUTA Daisuke, 2009. "Customer Relationships and the Provision of Trade Credit during a Recession," Discussion papers 09043, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance
    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics

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