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The source of fluctuations in money : Evidence from trade credit

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  • Ramey, Valerie A.

Abstract

This paper tests the importance of technology shocks versus financial shocks for explaining, fluctuations in money. The model presented extends the theory of King and Plosser by recognizing that both money and trade credit provide transactions services. The model shows that the comovements between money and trade credit can reveal the nature of the underlying shocks. The empirical results strongly suggest that shocks to the financial system account for most of the fluctuations in money. Thus, the results cast doubt on the hypothesis that nonfinancial technology shocks are the main source of the money-income correlation.
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  • Ramey, Valerie A., 1992. "The source of fluctuations in money : Evidence from trade credit," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 171-193, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:moneco:v:30:y:1992:i:2:p:171-193
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    2. Eugenio Gaiotti & Alessandro Secchi, 2004. "Is there a cost channel of monetary policy transmission? An investigation into the pricing behaviour of 2,000 firms," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 525, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    3. Choi, Woon Gyu & Kim, Yungsan, 2005. "Trade Credit and the Effect of Macro-Financial Shocks: Evidence from U.S. Panel Data," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(04), pages 897-925, December.
    4. Mihir A. Desai & C. Fritz Foley & James R. Hines Jr., 2016. "Trade Credit and Taxes," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 98(1), pages 132-139, March.
    5. Michael D. Bordo & Lars Jonung & Pierre Siklos, 1993. "The Common Development of Institutional Change as Measured by Income Velocity: A Century of Evidence from Industrialized Countries," NBER Working Papers 4379, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    7. Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory F. & Watanabe, Wako, 2013. "Are trade creditors relationship lenders?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25, pages 24-38.
    8. Kim, Byung-Yeon & Pirttila, Jukka, 2004. "Money, barter, and inflation in Russia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 297-314, June.
    9. Coricelli, Fabrizio & Frigerio, Marco, 2016. "Inter-Enterprise Credit and Adjustment During Financial Crises: The Role of Firm Size," CEPR Discussion Papers 11680, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Ramey, Valerie, 1993. "How important is the credit channel in the transmission of monetary policy?," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 1-45, December.
    11. Mark Gertler & Simon Gilchrist, 1994. "Monetary Policy, Business Cycles, and the Behavior of Small Manufacturing Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(2), pages 309-340.
    12. Fleischman, Gary & Herz, Paul, 2005. "An empirical investigation of trends in barter activity in the Russian Federation," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 39-63.
    13. Norrbin, Stefan C. & Reffett, Kevin L., 1995. "Trade credit in a monetary economy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 413-430, June.
    14. Ono, Masanori, 2009. "Trading companies as financial intermediaries in Japan," MPRA Paper 17331, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Burkart, Mike & Ellingsen, Tore, 2002. "In-Kind Finance," CEPR Discussion Papers 3536, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    16. Lawrence J. Christiano & Martin Eichenbaum & Charles Evans, 1994. "The Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks: Some Evidence from the Flow of Funds," NBER Working Papers 4699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    17. Norrbin, Stefan C. & Reffett, Kevin L., 1996. "A substitution test of long-run money demand," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 253-270.
    18. Kenshi Taketa & Gregory F. Udell, 2007. "Lending Channels and Financial Shocks: The Case of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprise Trade Credit and the Japanese Banking Crisis," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 25(2), pages 1-44, November.
    19. Ono, Masanori, 2001. "Determinants of Trade Credit in the Japanese Manufacturing Sector," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 160-177, June.
    20. Gregory E. Elliehausen & John D. Wolken, 1993. "The demand for trade credit: an investigation of motives for trade credit use by small businesses," Staff Studies 165, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    21. Finkelstein Shapiro, Alan, 2014. "Self-employment and business cycle persistence: Does the composition of employment matter for economic recoveries?," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 200-218.
    22. Inessa Love & Rida Zaidi, 2010. "Trade Credit, Bank Credit and Financial Crisis-super-," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 10(s1), pages 125-147.
    23. Becker, Bo & Ivashina, Victoria, 2014. "Cyclicality of credit supply: Firm level evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 76-93.
    24. Santiago Carbó Valverde & Francisco Rodríguez-Fernández & Gregory F. Udell, 2008. "Bank lending, financing constraints and SME investment," Working Paper Series WP-08-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    25. Lim, Terence & Lo, Andrew W. & Merton, Robert C. & Scholes, Myron S., 2006. "The Derivatives Sourcebook," Foundations and Trends(R) in Finance, now publishers, vol. 1(5–6), pages 365-572, April.

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