Money, Income and Prices After the 1980s
Three empirical findings presented in this paper show that evidence based on the most recent U.S. experience does not indicate the kind of close or reliable relationship between money and nonfinancial economic activity that, if present, might warrant basing the design and implementation of monetary policy on money in a formally systematic way: First, extending the familiar time-series analysis to include data from the 1980s sharply weakens the evidence from prior periods showing that such relationships existed between money and nominal income, or between money and either real income or prices considered separately. Focusing on data from 1970 onward destroys this evidence altogether. Second, the finding by Stock and Watson that particular forms of time-series experiments still showed a significant role for money in affecting real output through 1985 not only becomes weaker on the inclusion of data from 1986 and 1987 but also, even for data through 1985 only, turns out to depend on the use in their analysis of a particular short-term interest rate, the Treasury bill rate. Using instead the commercial paper rate, which apparently is superior in capturing the information in financial prices that matters for real output, also greatly weakens their result. Simultaneously using the commercial paper rate and including data through 1987 destroys it altogether. Third, extending the analysis through 1987 also destroys the time-series evidence from earlier periods showing that money and income are co-integrated. Even if monetary policy were to be conducted in terms of targets for money growth, the failure of money and income to be co-integrated means that there is no empirical ground for resisting the "base drift" that results from persistent random differences between actual money growth and the corresponding target.
|Date of creation:||Feb 1989|
|Publication status:||published as "Money, Income, Prices, and Interest Rates." From The American Economic Review, Vol. 82, No. 3, pp. 472-492, (June 1992).|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.|
Web page: http://www.nber.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kareken, John H & Muench, Thomas & Wallace, Neil, 1973. "Optimal Open Market Strategy: The Use of Information Variables," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(1), pages 156-172, March.
- Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015.
"Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-276, March.
- Litterman, Robert B & Weiss, Laurence M, 1985. "Money, Real Interest Rates, and Output: A Reinterpretation of Postwar U.S. Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(1), pages 129-156, January.
- Robert B. Litterman & Laurence Weiss, 1983. "Money, Real Interest Rates, and Output: A Reinterpretation of Postwar U.S. Data," NBER Working Papers 1077, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Robert B. Litterman & Laurence M. Weiss, 1984. "Money, real interest rates, and output: a reinterpretation of postwar U.S. data," Staff Report 89, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Sims, Christopher A, 1980. "Comparison of Interwar and Postwar Business Cycles: Monetarism Reconsidered," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(2), pages 250-257, May.
- Christopher A. Sims, 1980. "Comparison of Interwar and Postwar Business Cycles: Monetarism Reconsidered," NBER Working Papers 0430, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Zellner, Arnold, 1985. "Bayesian Econometrics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(2), pages 253-269, March.
- Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
- McCallum, Bennett T, 1985. "On Consequences and Criticisms of Monetary Targeting," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 17(4), pages 570-597, November.
- Bennett T. McCallum, 1985. "On Consequences and Criticisms of Monetary Targeting," NBER Working Papers 1596, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Martin Eichenbaum & Kenneth I. Singleton, 1986. "Do Equilibrium Real Business Cycle Theories Explain Postwar U.S. Business Cycles?," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1986, Volume 1, pages 91-146 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Martin S. Eichenbaum & Kenneth J. Singleton, 1986. "Do Equilibrium Real Business Cycle Theories Explain Post-War U.S. Business Cycles?," NBER Working Papers 1932, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Walsh, Carl E, 1986. "In Defense of Base Drift," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(4), pages 692-700, September.
- Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-552, September.
- Benjamin M. Friedman, 1984. "The value of intermediate targets in implementing monetary policy," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 169-199. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)