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How Do Small Businesses Finance their Growth Opportunities? – The Case of Recovery from the Lost Decade in Japan?


  • Daisuke Tsuruta

    (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)


We investigate the financial resources used by small businesses in Japan during the period of recovery from a severe recession. Unlike large listed firms, small businesses cannot easily issue commercial debt or equity. Therefore, small businesses largely depend on trade credit and bank loans. Many previous studies argue that bank loans are cheaper than trade credit; so many firms (particularly unconstrained firms) use bank loans, especially in financially developed economies. However, the Japanese evidence does not support this view. First, small businesses with higher credit demand increase trade credit more during the period of the recovery from a severe recession. Second, creditworthy firms (for example, firms with more collateral assets) also increase trade credit to finance their growth opportunities. Third, firms in unstable industries increase trade credit more. This suggests that suppliers are able to offer credit, unlike banks, as they have a relative advantage in day-by-day monitoring.

Suggested Citation

  • Daisuke Tsuruta, 2010. "How Do Small Businesses Finance their Growth Opportunities? – The Case of Recovery from the Lost Decade in Japan?," GRIPS Discussion Papers 09-19, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:ngi:dpaper:09-19

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Smith, Janet Kiholm, 1987. " Trade Credit and Informational Asymmetry," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(4), pages 863-872, September.
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    3. Giuseppe Marotta, 1997. "Does trade credit redistribution thwart monetary policy? Evidence from Italy," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(12), pages 1619-1629.
    4. Love, Inessa & Preve, Lorenzo A. & Sarria-Allende, Virginia, 2007. "Trade credit and bank credit: Evidence from recent financial crises," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(2), pages 453-469, February.
    5. Raymond Fisman & Inessa Love, 2003. "Trade Credit, Financial Intermediary Development, and Industry Growth," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 58(1), pages 353-374, February.
    6. Burkart, Mike & Ellingsen, Tore, 2002. "In-kind finance," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 24940, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    7. Yoshiro Miwa & J. Mark Ramseyer, 2008. "The Implications of Trade Credit for Bank Monitoring: Suggestive Evidence from Japan," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 317-343, June.
    8. Vincente Cuñat, 2000. "Trade Credit: Suppliers as Debt Collectors and Insurance Providers," FMG Discussion Papers dp365, Financial Markets Group.
    9. Choi, Woon Gyu & Kim, Yungsan, 2005. "Trade Credit and the Effect of Macro-Financial Shocks: Evidence from U.S. Panel Data," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 40(04), pages 897-925, December.
    10. Chee K. Ng & Janet Kiholm Smith & Richard L. Smith, 1999. "Evidence on the Determinants of Credit Terms Used in Interfirm Trade," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(3), pages 1109-1129, June.
    11. Ge, Ying & Qiu, Jiaping, 2007. "Financial development, bank discrimination and trade credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 513-530, February.
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