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The Implications of Trade Credit for Bank Monitoring: Suggestive Evidence from Japan

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  • Yoshiro Miwa
  • J. Mark Ramseyer

Abstract

"Firms in modern developed economies borrow from both banks and trade partners. Using Japanese manufacturing data from the 1960s, we estimate the price of trade credit, and explore some of the ways firms choose between the credit and bank loans. We find that firms of all sizes borrow heavily from their trade partners, and at implicit rates that track the explicit rates banks would charge. They borrow from banks when they anticipate needing money for relatively long periods; they turn to trade partners when they face short-term unexpected exigencies. This apparent contrast in the term structures follows, we suggest, from the fundamentally different way bankers and trade partners cut default risk. Because bankers seldom know their borrowers' industries first hand, they rely on formal legal protection (like security interests). Because trade partners know the industry well, they reduce risk by monitoring their borrowers closely instead. Because the costs to creating legal mechanisms are heavily front-loaded, bankers focus on long-term debt; because the costs of monitoring debtors are ongoing, trade creditors do not. Apparently, banks monitor less than we have thought." Copyright (c) 2008, The Author(s) Journal Compilation (c) 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

Suggested Citation

  • Yoshiro Miwa & J. Mark Ramseyer, 2008. "The Implications of Trade Credit for Bank Monitoring: Suggestive Evidence from Japan," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 317-343, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jemstr:v:17:y:2008:i:2:p:317-343
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Fabbri, Daniela & Menichini, Anna Maria C., 2010. "Trade credit, collateral liquidation, and borrowing constraints," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(3), pages 413-432, June.
    2. Kutsuna, Kenji & Smith, Janet Kiholm & Smith, Richard & Yamada, Kazuo, 2016. "Supply-chain spillover effects of IPOs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 150-168.
    3. Gregory F Udell, 2015. "SME Access to Intermediated Credit: What Do We Know and What Don't We Know?," RBA Annual Conference Volume,in: Angus Moore & John Simon (ed.), Small Business Conditions and Finance Reserve Bank of Australia.
    4. Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory F. & Watanabe, Wako, 2013. "Are trade creditors relationship lenders?," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 25, pages 24-38.
    5. Yoshiro Miwa, 2012. "How Strongly Do "Financing Constraints" Affect Firm Behavior?: Japanese Corporate Investment since the Mid-1980s," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-862, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
    6. Astrid K. Chludek, 2011. "A note on the price of trade credit," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(6), pages 565-574, May.
    7. Régis BLAZY & Nirjhar NIGAM, 2018. "Corporate insolvency procedures in England: The uneasy case for liquidations," Working Papers of LaRGE Research Center 2018-02, Laboratoire de Recherche en Gestion et Economie (LaRGE), Université de Strasbourg.
    8. Yoshiro Miwa, 2013. "How Strongly Do "Financing Constraints" Affect Firm Behavior? Japanese Corporate Investment since the Mid-1980s," Public Policy Review, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance Japan, vol. 9(1), pages 203-255, January.
    9. Yoshiro Miwa, 2012. "Are Japanese Firms Becoming More Independent from Their Banks?: Evidence from the Firm-Level Data of the "Corporate Enterprise Quarterly Statistics," 1994-2009," Public Policy Review, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance Japan, vol. 8(4), pages 415-452, August.
    10. Daisuke Tsuruta, 2010. "How Do Small Businesses Finance their Growth Opportunities? – The Case of Recovery from the Lost Decade in Japan?," GRIPS Discussion Papers 09-19, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
    11. Tsuruta, Daisuke, 2015. "Bank loan availability and trade credit for small businesses during the financial crisis," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 40-52.
    12. TSURUTA Daisuke, 2009. "Customer Relationships and the Provision of Trade Credit during a Recession," Discussion papers 09043, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    13. Mariarosaria Agostino & Francesco Trivieri, 2014. "Does trade credit play a signalling role? Some evidence from SMEs microdata," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 131-151, January.

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