IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/fip/fedkrw/rwp15-08.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Internationalization and bank risk

Author

Listed:
  • Allen N. Berger
  • Sadok El Ghoul
  • Omrane Guedhami
  • Raluca Roman

Abstract

This paper documents a positive relation between internationalization and bank risk. This is consistent with the empirical dominance of the market risk hypothesis ? whereby internationalization increases banks' risk due to market-specific factors in foreign markets ? over the diversification hypothesis ? whereby internationalization allows banks to reduce risk through diversification of their operations. The results continue to hold following a variety of robustness tests, including endogeneity and sample selection bias. We also find that the magnitude of this effect is more pronounced during financial crises. The results appear to be at least partially explained by agency problems related to poor corporate governance.

Suggested Citation

  • Allen N. Berger & Sadok El Ghoul & Omrane Guedhami & Raluca Roman, 2015. "Internationalization and bank risk," Research Working Paper RWP 15-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, revised 03 Sep 2015.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedkrw:rwp15-08
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.kansascityfed.org/~/media/files/publicat/reswkpap/pdf/rwp15-08.pdf
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Raluca Roman, 2015. "Shareholder activism in banking," Research Working Paper RWP 15-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, revised 01 Aug 2015.
    2. Temesvary, Judit, 2015. "Foreign activities of U.S. banks since 1997: The roles of regulations and market conditions in crises and normal times," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 202-222.
    3. Hakenes, Hendrik & Schnabel, Isabel, 2011. "Bank size and risk-taking under Basel II," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 1436-1449, June.
    4. Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
    5. Berger, Allen N. & Klapper, Leora F. & Udell, Gregory F., 2001. "The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(12), pages 2127-2167, December.
    6. Duchin, Ran & Sosyura, Denis, 2014. "Safer ratios, riskier portfolios: Banks׳ response to government aid," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 113(1), pages 1-28.
    7. Berger, Allen N. & Bouwman, Christa H.S., 2013. "How does capital affect bank performance during financial crises?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 146-176.
    8. Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2007. "Is there a diversification discount in financial conglomerates?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 331-367, August.
    9. Allen N. Berger & Christa H. S. Bouwman, 2009. "Bank Liquidity Creation," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(9), pages 3779-3837, September.
    10. Duchin, Ran & Ozbas, Oguzhan & Sensoy, Berk A., 2010. "Costly external finance, corporate investment, and the subprime mortgage credit crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(3), pages 418-435, September.
    11. repec:hal:journl:hal-00785225 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. De Haan, Jakob & Poghosyan, Tigran, 2012. "Bank size, market concentration, and bank earnings volatility in the US," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 35-54.
    13. Berger, Allen N. & Bouwman, Christa H. S. & Kick, Thomas & Schaeck, Klaus, 2011. "Bank Risk Taking and Liquidity Creation Following Regulatory Interventions and Capital Support," Working Papers 11-57, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
    14. Alan M Rugman, 1976. "Risk Reduction by International Diversification," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 7(2), pages 75-80, June.
    15. Hughes, John S. & Logue, Dennis E. & Sweeney, Richard James, 1975. "Corporate International Diversification and Market Assigned Measures of Risk and Diversification," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(4), pages 627-637, November.
    16. Keeley, Michael C, 1990. "Deposit Insurance, Risk, and Market Power in Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1183-1200, December.
    17. Solnik, Bruno H., 1974. "An equilibrium model of the international capital market," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 500-524, August.
    18. Brimmer, Andrew F & Dahl, Frederick R, 1975. "Growth of American International Banking: Implications for Public Policy," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 30(2), pages 341-363, May.
    19. Chuck C Y Kwok & David M Reeb, 2000. "Internationalization and Firm Risk: An Upstream-Downstream Hypothesis," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 31(4), pages 611-629, December.
    20. Michael C. Jensen, 2010. "The Modern Industrial Revolution, Exit, and the Failure of Internal Control Systems," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 22(1), pages 43-58, January.
    21. Stulz, ReneM., 1988. "Managerial control of voting rights : Financing policies and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 25-54, January.
    22. David Martinez-Miera & Rafael Repullo, 2010. "Does Competition Reduce the Risk of Bank Failure?," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(10), pages 3638-3664, October.
    23. Grosse, Robert & Goldberg, Lawrence G., 1991. "Foreign bank activity in the United States: An analysis by country of origin," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1093-1112, December.
    24. Thompson, Samuel B., 2011. "Simple formulas for standard errors that cluster by both firm and time," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 1-10, January.
    25. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-470, May.
    26. Kwang Chul Lee & Chuck C Y Kwok, 1988. "Multinational Corporations vs. Domestic Corporations: International Environmental Factors and Determinants of Capital Structure," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 19(2), pages 195-217, June.
    27. Yakov Amihud & Baruch Lev, 1981. "Risk Reduction as a Managerial Motive for Conglomerate Mergers," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 12(2), pages 605-617, Autumn.
    28. Baele, Lieven & De Jonghe, Olivier & Vander Vennet, Rudi, 2007. "Does the stock market value bank diversification?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(7), pages 1999-2023, July.
    29. Steven D. Levitt, 1996. "The Effect of Prison Population Size on Crime Rates: Evidence from Prison Overcrowding Litigation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(2), pages 319-351.
    30. Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1997. "Financial Intermediation, Loanable Funds, and The Real Sector," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 112(3), pages 663-691.
    31. Bertay, Ata Can & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 2011. "Is the Financial Safety Net a Barrier to Cross-Border Banking?," CEPR Discussion Papers 8712, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    32. Stiroh, Kevin J. & Rumble, Adrienne, 2006. "The dark side of diversification: The case of US financial holding companies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 2131-2161, August.
    33. Claudia M. Buch & Cathérine T. Koch & Michael Koetter, 2013. "Do Banks Benefit from Internationalization? Revisiting the Market Power--Risk Nexus," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 17(4), pages 1401-1435.
    34. Brealey, R. A. & Kaplanis, E. C., 1996. "The determination of foreign banking location," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 577-597, August.
    35. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    36. Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 2010. "Bank activity and funding strategies: The impact on risk and returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(3), pages 626-650, December.
    37. Black, Fischer, 1990. "Equilibrium Exchange Rate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(3), pages 899-907, July.
    38. Beltratti, Andrea & Stulz, René M., 2012. "The credit crisis around the globe: Why did some banks perform better?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 1-17.
    39. Barry, Thierno Amadou & Lepetit, Laetitia & Tarazi, Amine, 2011. "Ownership structure and risk in publicly held and privately owned banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(5), pages 1327-1340, May.
    40. Shapiro, Alan C, 1985. "Currency Risk and Country Risk in International Banking," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 881-891, July.
    41. Berger, Allen N. & Buch, Claudia M. & DeLong, Gayle & DeYoung, Robert, 2004. "Exporting financial institutions management via foreign direct investment mergers and acquisitions," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 333-366, April.
    42. Kim, Daesik & Santomero, Anthony M, 1988. " Risk in Banking and Capital Regulation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(5), pages 1219-1233, December.
    43. Gaspar, Jose-Miguel & Massa, Massimo & Matos, Pedro, 2005. "Shareholder investment horizons and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 135-165, April.
    44. Lepetit, Laetitia & Nys, Emmanuelle & Rous, Philippe & Tarazi, Amine, 2008. "Bank income structure and risk: An empirical analysis of European banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1452-1467, August.
    45. Peek, Joe & Rosengren, Eric S. & Kasirye, Faith, 1999. "The poor performance of foreign bank subsidiaries: Were the problems acquired or created?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2-4), pages 579-604, February.
    46. Berger, Allen N. & Miller, Nathan H. & Petersen, Mitchell A. & Rajan, Raghuram G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2005. "Does function follow organizational form? Evidence from the lending practices of large and small banks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-269, May.
    47. Stiroh, Kevin J., 2006. "A Portfolio View of Banking with Interest and Noninterest Activities," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(5), pages 1351-1361, August.
    48. O'Hara, Maureen & Shaw, Wayne, 1990. "Deposit Insurance and Wealth Effects: The Value of Being "Too Big to Fail."," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(5), pages 1587-1600, December.
    49. Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2009. "Bank governance, regulation and risk taking," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 259-275, August.
    50. Kimberly C. Gleason & Ike Mathur & Roy A. Wiggins, 2006. "The Use Of Acquisitions And Joint Ventures By U.S. Banks Expanding Abroad," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 29(4), pages 503-522, December.
    51. Berger, Allen & Bouwman, Christa, 2015. "Bank Liquidity Creation and Financial Crises," Elsevier Monographs, Elsevier, edition 1, number 9780128002339.
    52. Saunders, Anthony & Strock, Elizabeth & Travlos, Nickolaos G, 1990. "Ownership Structure, Deregulation, and Bank Risk Taking," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(2), pages 643-654, June.
    53. Griliches, Zvi & Hausman, Jerry A., 1986. "Errors in variables in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 93-118, February.
    54. Gennaioli, Nicola & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert, 2012. "Neglected risks, financial innovation, and financial fragility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(3), pages 452-468.
    55. Brewer, Thomas L & Rivoli, Pietra, 1990. "Politics and Perceived Country Creditworthiness in International Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 22(3), pages 357-369, August.
    56. Stulz, ReneM., 1990. "Managerial discretion and optimal financing policies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 3-27, July.
    57. Chen, Xia & Harford, Jarrad & Li, Kai, 2007. "Monitoring: Which institutions matter?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(2), pages 279-305, November.
    58. Engwall, L. & Wallenstål, M., 1988. "Tit for tat in small steps: the internationalization of Swedish banks," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(3-4), pages 147-155.
    59. Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity Score-Matching Methods For Nonexperimental Causal Studies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 151-161, February.
    60. Brickley, James A. & Coles, Jeffrey L. & Jarrell, Gregg, 1997. "Leadership structure: Separating the CEO and Chairman of the Board," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 189-220, June.
    61. Carhart, Mark M, 1997. "On Persistence in Mutual Fund Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 57-82, March.
    62. Wolf Wagner, 2011. "Systemic Liquidation Risk and the Diversity–Diversification Trade‐Off," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(4), pages 1141-1175, August.
    63. Black, Lamont K. & Hazelwood, Lieu N., 2013. "The effect of TARP on bank risk-taking," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 790-803.
    64. Daniel E. Nolle & Rama Seth, 1996. "Do banks follow their customers abroad?," Research Paper 9620, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    65. Boyd, John H. & Runkle, David E., 1993. "Size and performance of banking firms : Testing the predictions of theory," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 47-67, February.
    66. Hellman, Pasi, 1996. "The internationalization of Finnish financial service companies," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 191-208, April.
    67. Alvaro Cuervo-Cazurra & Mary M Maloney & Shalini Manrakhan, 2007. "Causes of the difficulties in internationalization," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(5), pages 709-725, September.
    68. Stewart R Miller & Arvind Parkhe, 1998. "Patterns in the Expansion of U.S. Banks' Foreign Operations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(2), pages 359-388, June.
    69. Allen N. Berger & Leora F. Klapper & Rima Turk-Ariss, 2017. "Bank competition and financial stability," Chapters, in: Jacob A. Bikker & Laura Spierdijk (ed.), Handbook of Competition in Banking and Finance, chapter 10, pages 185-204, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    70. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-636, May-June.
    71. Allen N. Berger & Robert DeYoung & Hesna Genay & Gregory F. Udell, 1999. "Globalization of financial institutions: evidence from cross-border banking performance," Working Paper Series WP-99-25, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    72. Koehn, Michael & Santomero, Anthony M, 1980. "Regulation of Bank Capital and Portfolio Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(5), pages 1235-1244, December.
    73. Joel F. Houston & Chen Lin & Yue Ma, 2012. "Regulatory Arbitrage and International Bank Flows," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 67(5), pages 1845-1895, October.
    74. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
    75. Allen N. Berger & Björn Imbierowicz & Christian Rauch, 2016. "The Roles of Corporate Governance in Bank Failures during the Recent Financial Crisis," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 48(4), pages 729-770, June.
    76. Agmon, Tamir & Lessard, Donald R, 1977. "Investor Recognition of Corporate International Diversification," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1049-1055, September.
    77. Minh To, Huong & Tripe, David, 2002. "Factors influencing the performance of foreign-owned banks in New Zealand," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 12(4-5), pages 341-357.
    78. Nicola Cetorelli & Linda S. Goldberg, 2012. "Banking Globalization and Monetary Transmission," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 67(5), pages 1811-1843, October.
    79. Chari, Anusha & Gupta, Nandini, 2008. "Incumbents and protectionism: The political economy of foreign entry liberalization," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 633-656, June.
    80. Dittmar, Amy & Mahrt-Smith, Jan, 2007. "Corporate governance and the value of cash holdings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(3), pages 599-634, March.
    81. Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
    82. Goldberg, Lawrence G. & Saunders, Anthony, 1981. "The determinants of foreign banking activity in the United States," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 17-32, March.
    83. Eun, Cheol S & Resnick, Bruce G, 1988. " Exchange Rate Uncertainty, Forward Contracts, and International Portfolio Selection," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 197-215, March.
    84. Nicola Cetorelli & Linda S Goldberg, 2011. "Global Banks and International Shock Transmission: Evidence from the Crisis," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 59(1), pages 41-76, April.
    85. David M Reeb & Chuck C Y Kwok & H Young Baek, 1998. "Systematic Risk of the Multinational Corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(2), pages 263-279, June.
    86. Beverly Hirtle, 1991. "Factors affecting the competitiveness of internationally active financial institutions," Quarterly Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 16(Spr), pages 38-51.
    87. Demsetz, Rebecca S & Strahan, Philip E, 1997. "Diversification, Size, and Risk at Bank Holding Companies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(3), pages 300-313, August.
    88. Buch, Claudia M. & DeLong, Gayle, 2004. "Cross-border bank mergers: What lures the rare animal?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(9), pages 2077-2102, September.
    89. Martin R. Goetz & Luc Laeven & Ross Levine, 2013. "Identifying the Valuation Effects and Agency Costs of Corporate Diversification: Evidence from the Geographic Diversification of U.S. Banks," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(7), pages 1787-1823.
    90. Mark H. Lang & Karl V. Lins & Darius P. Miller, 2004. "Concentrated Control, Analyst Following, and Valuation: Do Analysts Matter Most When Investors Are Protected Least?," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(3), pages 589-623, June.
    91. Houston, Joel F. & Lin, Chen & Lin, Ping & Ma, Yue, 2010. "Creditor rights, information sharing, and bank risk taking," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(3), pages 485-512, June.
    92. DeYoung, Robert & Nolle, Daniel E, 1996. "Foreign-Owned Banks in the United States: Earning Market Share or Buying It?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 622-636, November.
    93. Todd A Burgman, 1996. "An Empirical Examination of Multinational Corporate Capital Structure," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 27(3), pages 553-570, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Chen, Minghua & Wu, Ji & Jeon, Bang Nam & Wang, Rui, 2017. "Do foreign banks take more risk? Evidence from emerging economies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 20-39.
    2. W. Scott Frame & Atanas Mihov & Leandro Sanz, 2017. "Foreign Investment, Regulatory Arbitrage, and the Risk of U.S. Banking Organizations," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2017-2, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    3. Allen N. Berger & Raluca Roman & John Sedunov, 2016. "Do bank bailouts reduce or increase systemic risk? the effects of TARP on financial system stability," Research Working Paper RWP 16-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, revised 04 Oct 2016.
    4. Elena Carletti & Steven Ongena & Jan-Peter Siedlarek & Giancarlo Spagnolo, 2019. "The Impact of Stricter Merger Control on Bank Mergers and Acquisitions. Too-Big-To-Fail and Competition," Working Papers 201614R2, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
    5. Bertay, Ata Can & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Huizinga, Harry, 2017. "Are international banks different? Evidence on bank performance and strategy," CEPR Discussion Papers 12505, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Wu, Meng-Wen & Shen, Chung Hua, 2019. "Effects of shadow banking on bank risks from the view of capital adequacy," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 176-197.
    7. Yildirim, Canan & Efthyvoulou, Georgios, 2018. "Bank value and geographic diversification: regional vs global," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 225-245.
    8. Duijm, Patty & Schoenmaker, Dirk, 2017. "European Banks Straddling Borders: Risky or Rewarding?," CEPR Discussion Papers 12159, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    9. Luo, Yun & Tanna, Sailesh & De Vita, Glauco, 2016. "Financial openness, risk and bank efficiency: Cross-country evidence," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 132-148.
    10. Danisman, Gamze Ozturk & Demirel, Pelin, 2019. "Bank risk-taking in developed countries: The influence of market power and bank regulations," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 202-217.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Risk; Financial crises; Internationalization; Corporate governance;

    JEL classification:

    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation
    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedkrw:rwp15-08. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/frbkcus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.