IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/esr/wpaper/wp290.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Intra- and Extra-Union Flexibility in Meeting the European Union's Emission Reduction Targets

Author

Listed:
  • Tol, Richard S. J.

    (ESRI)

Abstract

The EU has proposed four flexibility mechanisms for the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2013-2020: (1) the Emissions Trade Scheme (ETS), a permit market between selected companies; (2) trade in non-ETS allotments between Member States; (3) the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to purchase offsets in developing countries; and (4) trade in CDM warrants between Member States. This paper shows that aggregate abatement costs fall as flexibility increases. However, limited flexibility creates rents so that increasing flexibility raises costs in some Member States. Costs are reduced more by the CDM than by non-ETS trade. The CDM warrants market reduces costs by a small amount only; market power is a real issue. However, the warrants market is obsolete in case there is non-ETS trade. The CDM leads to price convergence between the ETS and non-ETS market. There would be one price for carbon in the European Union if the proposed limits on CDM access are relaxed slightly

Suggested Citation

  • Tol, Richard S. J., 2009. "Intra- and Extra-Union Flexibility in Meeting the European Union's Emission Reduction Targets," Papers WP290, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:esr:wpaper:wp290
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.esri.ie/pubs/WP290.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. John Reilly, Marcus Sarofim, Sergey Paltsev and Ronald Prinn, 2006. "The Role of Non-CO2 GHGs in Climate Policy: Analysis Using the MIT IGSM," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I), pages 503-520.
    2. Richard S.J. Tol & Katrin Rehdanz, 2008. "A no cap but trade proposal for emission targets," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(3), pages 293-304, May.
    3. Benz, Eva & Trück, Stefan, 2009. "Modeling the price dynamics of CO2 emission allowances," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 4-15, January.
    4. Fischer, Carolyn, 2008. "Emissions pricing, spillovers, and public investment in environmentally friendly technologies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 487-502, March.
    5. Tol, Richard S. J., 2008. "The Social Cost of Carbon: Trends, Outliers and Catastrophes," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 2, pages 1-22.
    6. Gernot Klepper & Sonja Peterson, 2006. "Emissions Trading, CDM, JI, and More: The Climate Strategy of the EU," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-26.
    7. Dellink, Rob & van Ierland, Ekko, 2006. "Pollution abatement in the Netherlands: A dynamic applied general equilibrium assessment," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 207-221, February.
    8. Tol, Richard S.J., 2007. "Europe's long-term climate target: A critical evaluation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 424-432, January.
    9. Frances Ruane & Xiaoheng Zhang, 2007. "Location Choices of the Pharmaceutical Industry in Europe after 1992," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp220, IIIS.
    10. Onno Kuik & Reyer Gerlagh, 2003. "Trade Liberalization and Carbon Leakage," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 97-120.
    11. Mundaca, Luis, 2008. "Markets for energy efficiency: Exploring the implications of an EU-wide 'Tradable White Certificate' scheme," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 3016-3043, November.
    12. Rehdanz, Katrin & Tol, Richard S.J., 2005. "Unilateral regulation of bilateral trade in greenhouse gas emission permits," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(4), pages 397-416, September.
    13. Anger, Niels, 2008. "Emissions trading beyond Europe: Linking schemes in a post-Kyoto world," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 2028-2049, July.
    14. Oikonomou, Vlasis & Jepma, Catrinus & Becchis, Franco & Russolillo, Daniele, 2008. "White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement with energy taxes: A theoretical economic model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 3044-3062, November.
    15. Rehdanz, Katrin & Tol, Richard S.J. & Wetzel, Patrick, 2006. "Ocean carbon sinks and international climate policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3516-3526, December.
    16. Christoph Böhringer & Henrike Koschel & Ulf Moslener, 2008. "Efficiency losses from overlapping regulation of EU carbon emissions," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 299-317, June.
    17. Bohringer, Christoph & Hoffmann, Tim & Manrique-de-Lara-Penate, Casiano, 2006. "The efficiency costs of separating carbon markets under the EU emissions trading scheme: A quantitative assessment for Germany," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 44-61, January.
    18. Seán Lyons & Karen Mayor & Richard S.J. Tol, 2008. "Environmental Accounts for the Republic of Ireland: 1990-2005," Papers WP223, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    19. Tol, Richard S.J., 2009. "Intra-union flexibility of non-ETS emission reduction obligations in the European Union," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1745-1752, May.
    20. Babiker, Mustafa H. & Metcalf, Gilbert E. & Reilly, John, 2003. "Tax distortions and global climate policy," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 269-287, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Frédéric Babonneau & Alain Haurie & Marc Vielle, 2016. "Assessment of balanced burden-sharing in the 2050 EU climate/energy roadmap: a metamodeling approach," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 134(4), pages 505-519, February.
    2. Sivek, Martin & Kavina, Pavel & Jirásek, Jakub & Malečková, Veronika, 2012. "Factors influencing the selection of the past and future strategies for electricity generation in the Czech Republic," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 650-656.
    3. Gorecki, Paul K. & Lyons, Sean & Tol, Richard S.J., 2010. "EU climate change policy 2013-2020: Using the Clean Development Mechanism more effectively in the non-EU-ETS Sector," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 7466-7475, November.
    4. André Sceia & Juan-Carlos Altamirano-Cabrera & Marc Vielle & Nicolas Weidmann, 2012. "Assessment of Acceptable Swiss post-2012 Climate Policies," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 148(II), pages 347-380, June.
    5. Tol, Richard S.J., 2012. "A cost–benefit analysis of the EU 20/20/2020 package," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 288-295.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:esr:wpaper:wp290. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sarah Burns). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/esriiie.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.