Intra-Union Flexibility of Non-ETS Emission Reduction Obligations in the European Union
The current EU proposal on greenhouse gas emission reduction has 28 targets for 2020: an EU-wide one for carbon dioxide emissions covered by the European Trading System, and one target for non-ETS emission per Member State. Implementation is necessarily more expensive than needed. I consider three alternative proposals to reduce costs. In the Irish proposal, Member States can purchase ETS permits to offset excess non-ETS emissions. In the Polish proposal, Member States can sell excess non-ETS emissions in the ETS. In the Swedish proposal, Member States can trade their non-ETS allocations. I compare these three alternatives to the default policy (no flexibility outside the ETS) and to the cost-effective solution (full flexibility). I calibrate a simple model to the results of the impact assessment of the European Commission. This reveals that European Commission did not fully disclose all details, and that odd assumptions were made. In the case of three Member States, the non-ETS allocation exceeds the projected emissions. The results show that the alternative flexibility mechanisms would be used to only a limited extent, but would help to suppress the costs of meeting the target. The Swedish and Polish proposals come closest to the cost-effective solution as full use is made of the hot air in the non-ETS system. The Irish proposal performs best if there are negative surprises in either the cost of non-ETS emission reduction or non-ETS emission projections.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2008|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Whitaker Square, Sir John Rogerson's Quay, Dublin 2|
Phone: (353-1) 863 2000
Fax: (353-1) 863 2100
Web page: http://www.esri.ie
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Montgomery, W. David, 1972. "Markets in licenses and efficient pollution control programs," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 395-418, December.
- Gernot Klepper & Sonja Peterson, 2006.
"Emissions Trading, CDM, JI, and More: The Climate Strategy of the EU,"
The Energy Journal,
International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-26.
- Gernot Klepper & Sonja Peterson, 2005. "Emissions Trading, CDM, JI, and More – The Climate Strategy of the EU," Working Papers 2005.55, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Klepper, Gernot & Peterson, Sonja, 2005. "Emissions trading, CDM, JI, and more: The climate strategy of the EU," Kiel Working Papers 1238, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- Klepper, Gernot & Peterson, Sonja, 2006. "Emissions trading, CDM, JI, and more: the climate strategy of the EU," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 3814, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- John P. Weyant, Francisco C. de la Chesnaye, and Geoff J. Blanford, 2006. "Overview of EMF-21: Multigas Mitigation and Climate Policy," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Special I), pages 1-32.
- Böhringer, Christoph & Hoffmann, Tim & de Lara Peñate, Casiano Manrique, 2005. "The Efficiency Costs of Separating Carbon Markets Under the EU Emissions Trading Scheme: A Quantitative Assessment for Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-06, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Kruger, Joseph & Oates, Wallace E. & Pizer, William A., 2007. "Decentralization in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme and Lessons for Global Policy," Discussion Papers dp-07-02, Resources For the Future.
- Tol, Richard S.J., 2007. "Europe's long-term climate target: A critical evaluation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 424-432, January.
- Richard S.J. Tol, 2005. "Europe’S Long Term Climate Target: A Critical Evaluation," Working Papers FNU-92, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Sep 2005.
- Capros, Pantelis & Mantzos, Leonidas & Parousos, Leonidas & Tasios, Nikolaos & Klaassen, Ger & Van Ierland, Tom, 2011. "Analysis of the EU policy package on climate change and renewables," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 1476-1485, March.
- Manne, Alan & Richels, Richard, 1996. "The Berlin Mandate: The costs of meeting post-2000 targets and timetables," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 205-210, March.
- Pizer, William A., 2002. "Combining price and quantity controls to mitigate global climate change," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(3), pages 409-434, September.
- Rehdanz, Katrin & Tol, Richard S.J. & Wetzel, Patrick, 2006. "Ocean carbon sinks and international climate policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 3516-3526, December.
- Katrin Rehdanz & Richard S.J. Tol & Patrick Wetzel, 2005. "Ocean Carbon Sinks And International Climate Policy," Working Papers FNU-60, Research unit Sustainability and Global Change, Hamburg University, revised Feb 2005.
- Christoph Böhringer & Henrike Koschel & Ulf Moslener, 2008. "Efficiency losses from overlapping regulation of EU carbon emissions," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 299-317, June.
- Bohringer, Christoph & Hoffmann, Tim & Manrique-de-Lara-Penate, Casiano, 2006. "The efficiency costs of separating carbon markets under the EU emissions trading scheme: A quantitative assessment for Germany," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 44-61, January.
- Bjorn Carlen, 2003. "Market Power in International Carbon Emissions Trading: A Laboratory Test," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 1-26. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)