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White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement with energy taxes: A theoretical economic model

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  • Oikonomou, Vlasis
  • Jepma, Catrinus
  • Becchis, Franco
  • Russolillo, Daniele

Abstract

In this paper we analyze interactions of two energy policy instruments, namely a White Certificates (WhC) scheme as an innovative policy instrument for energy efficiency improvement and energy taxation. These policy instruments differ in terms of objectives and final impacts on the price of electricity. We examine the effect of these policy instruments in the electricity sector, focusing on electricity producers and suppliers in a competitive market. Using microeconomic theory, we identify synergies between market players and demonstrate the total effect on the electricity price when suppliers internalize the behaviour of producers in their decisions. This model refers to an ideal market situation of full liberalization. The cases we examine consist of electricity producers with and without a carbon tax, electricity suppliers with and without an electricity tax, and with WhC obligations. Furthermore, we present a parallel implementation of WhC for electricity suppliers with carbon tax on electricity producers and an electricity tax with WhC obligations to electricity suppliers. We demonstrate differences in optimization behaviour of producers and suppliers. Based on a couple of cases of WhC with carbon and electricity taxes, various positive and negative effects of both schemes in terms of target achievement and efficiency are present, which can lead to an added value of such schemes in the policy mix, although uncertainties of outcomes are quite high. A basic finding is that in a merit order several parameters can increase final electricity price after the implementation of different policies: demand for electricity and electricity supply cost at a large scale and then follow the level of level of obligation for energy saving, level of penalty, and price of WhC (representing the marginal costs of energy saving projects). The impact magnitude of parameters depends on the values chosen and on the initial position of suppliers (i.e. if their actual behaviour deviates from full compliance with targets).

Suggested Citation

  • Oikonomou, Vlasis & Jepma, Catrinus & Becchis, Franco & Russolillo, Daniele, 2008. "White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement with energy taxes: A theoretical economic model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(6), pages 3044-3062, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:eneeco:v:30:y:2008:i:6:p:3044-3062
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Tol, Richard S.J., 2009. "Intra- and extra-union flexibility in meeting the European Union's emission reduction targets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, pages 4329-4336.
    2. Chai, Jian & Guo, Ju-E & Wang, Shou-Yang & Lai, Kin Keung, 2009. "Why does energy intensity fluctuate in China?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5717-5731, December.
    3. Niki-Artemis Spyridaki & Anastasia Ioannou & Alexandros Flamos, 2016. "How Can the Context Affect Policy Decision-Making: The Case of Climate Change Mitigation Policies in the Greek Building Sector," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(4), pages 1-22, April.
    4. repec:eee:enepol:v:107:y:2017:i:c:p:53-62 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Brita Bye & Taran Fæhn & Orvika Rosnes, 2015. "Residental energy efficiency and European carbon policies A CGE-analysis with bottom-up information on energy efficiency technologies," Discussion Papers 817, Statistics Norway, Research Department.
    6. Kim, Wook & Chattopadhyay, Deb & Park, Jong-bae, 2010. "Impact of carbon cost on wholesale electricity price: A note on price pass-through issues," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(8), pages 3441-3448.
    7. Louis-Gaetan Giraudet and Dominique Finon, 2015. "European experiences with white certifirecate obligations: A critical review of existing evaluations," Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, International Association for Energy Economics.
    8. Filipović, Sanja & Verbič, Miroslav & Radovanović, Mirjana, 2015. "Determinants of energy intensity in the European Union: A panel data analysis," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 92(P3), pages 547-555.
    9. repec:gam:jeners:v:9:y:2016:i:4:p:294:d:68422 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:eee:enepol:v:111:y:2017:i:c:p:268-280 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Gries, Thomas, 2011. "Climate and Industrial Policy in an Asymmetric World," WIDER Working Paper Series 079, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    12. Anil Markandya & Xavier Labandeira & Ana Ramos, 2013. "Policy Instruments to Foster Energy Efficiency," Working Papers 01-2014, Economics for Energy.
    13. Spyridaki, N.-A. & Flamos, A., 2014. "A paper trail of evaluation approaches to energy and climate policy interactions," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 1090-1107.

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