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Opportunity Spin-offs and Necessity Spin-offs

  • Guido Buenstorf


Necessity spin-offs are organized by employees of incumbent firms to escape deteriorating job conditions. This paper proposes a conceptual model of the spin-off process. Necessity spin-offs are distinguished from opportunity spin-offs on the basis of their triggering events. An empirical analysis of German laser spin-offs traces differences in the performance and determinants of the two types of spin-offs. Necessity spin-offs are important to limit the devaluation of individual competences by the market process. They are particularly relevant in growth crises of innovative firms, and in the restructuring of economies with protected or state-owned companies.

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Paper provided by Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography in its series Papers on Economics and Evolution with number 2007-18.

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Date of creation: Dec 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:esi:evopap:2007-18
Contact details of provider: Postal: Deutschhausstrasse 10, 35032 Marburg
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  1. Joern H. Block & Marcus Wagner, 2010. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earning s Differentials," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 62(2), pages 154-174, April.
  2. Anton, James J & Yao, Dennis A, 1995. "Start-ups, Spin-offs, and Internal Projects," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 362-78, October.
  3. Cantner, Uwe & Graf, Holger, 2006. "The network of innovators in Jena: An application of social network analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 463-480, May.
  4. Guido Buenstorf, 2007. "Creation and Pursuit of Entrepreneurial Opportunities: An Evolutionary Economics Perspective," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 323-337, April.
  5. Witt, Ulrich, 1998. "Imagination and leadership - The neglected dimension of an evolutionary theory of the firm," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 161-177, April.
  6. Guido Buenstorf, 2007. "Evolution on the Shoulders of Giants: Entrepreneurship and Firm Survival in the German Laser Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 179-202, May.
  7. Guido Buenstorf & Dirk Fornahl, 2006. "B2C - Bubble to Cluster: The Boom, Spin-off Entrepreneurship, and Regional Industry Evolution," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2006-20, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
  8. Chesbrough, Henry, 2003. "The governance and performance of Xerox's technology spin-off companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 403-421, March.
  9. Michael D. Cohen, 2006. "What's different is routine," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(2), pages 387-390, April.
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