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Opportunity spin-offs and necessity spin-offs

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  • Guido Buenstorf

Abstract

This paper proposes a new distinction between two types of spin-offs, which is based on the events triggering spin-off formation. Spin-offs induced by newly discovered opportunities are distinguished from necessity spin-offs organised to escape deteriorating job conditions. An empirical analysis of spin-offs in the German laser industry traces differences in the performance and determinants of the two spin-off types. Necessity spin-offs are important to limit the devaluation of individual human capital by the competitive market process.

Suggested Citation

  • Guido Buenstorf, 2009. "Opportunity spin-offs and necessity spin-offs," International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 1(1), pages 22-40.
  • Handle: RePEc:ids:ijeven:v:1:y:2009:i:1:p:22-40
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Christensen, Clayton M., 1993. "The Rigid Disk Drive Industry: A History of Commercial and Technological Turbulence," Business History Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 67(04), pages 531-588, December.
    2. Cantner, Uwe & Graf, Holger, 2006. "The network of innovators in Jena: An application of social network analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 463-480, May.
    3. Guido Buenstorf, 2007. "Evolution on the Shoulders of Giants: Entrepreneurship and Firm Survival in the German Laser Industry," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 30(3), pages 179-202, May.
    4. Witt, Ulrich, 1998. "Imagination and leadership - The neglected dimension of an evolutionary theory of the firm," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 161-177, April.
    5. Joern H. Block & Marcus Wagner, 2010. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earning s Differentials," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 62(2), pages 154-174, April.
    6. Michael D. Cohen, 2006. "What's different is routine," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 15(2), pages 387-390, April.
    7. Guido Buenstorf & Dirk Fornahl, 2006. "B2C - Bubble to Cluster: The Dot.com Boom, Spin-off Entrepreneurship, and Regional Industry Evolution," Papers on Economics and Evolution 2006-20, Philipps University Marburg, Department of Geography.
    8. Chesbrough, Henry, 2003. "The governance and performance of Xerox's technology spin-off companies," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 403-421, March.
    9. Anton, James J & Yao, Dennis A, 1995. "Start-ups, Spin-offs, and Internal Projects," Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 362-378, October.
    10. Guido Buenstorf, 2007. "Creation and Pursuit of Entrepreneurial Opportunities: An Evolutionary Economics Perspective," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 323-337, April.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Daniel Fackler & Claus Schnabel & Alexandra Schmucker, 2016. "Spinoffs in Germany: characteristics, survival, and the role of their parents," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 93-114, January.
    2. Johannes Dick & Katrin Hussinger & Boris Blumberg & John Hagedoorn, 2013. "Is success hereditary? Evidence on the performance of spawned ventures," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 40(4), pages 911-931, May.
    3. Fackler, Daniel & Schnabel, Claus, 2013. "Survival of Spinoffs and Other Startups: First Evidence for the Private Sector in Germany, 1976-2008," IZA Discussion Papers 7542, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    4. Pontus Braunerhjelm & Ding Ding & Per Thulin, 2018. "The knowledge spillover theory of intrapreneurship," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 51(1), pages 1-30, June.
    5. Guido Buenstorf & Dirk Fornahl, 2009. "B2C—bubble to cluster: the dot-com boom, spin-off entrepreneurship, and regional agglomeration," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 349-378, June.
    6. Peter Thompson & Jing Chen, 2011. "Disagreements, employee spinoffs and the choice of technology," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 14(3), pages 455-474, July.
    7. Christian Cordes & Peter Richerson & Georg Schwesinger, 2014. "A corporation’s culture as an impetus for spinoffs and a driving force of industry evolution," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 689-712, July.
    8. Helmut Fryges & Mike Wright, 2014. "The origin of spin-offs: a typology of corporate and academic spin-offs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 43(2), pages 245-259, August.
    9. Margherita Balconi & Roberto Fontana, 2011. "Entry and innovation: an analysis of the fabless semiconductor business," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 87-106, July.
    10. repec:spr:jglont:v:8:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1186_s40497-018-0109-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Giacomin, Olivier & Janssen, Frank & Guyot, Jean-luc & Lohest, Olivier, 2011. "Opportunity and/or necessity entrepreneurship? The impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs," MPRA Paper 29506, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    spin-offs; necessity entrepreneurship; opportunity discovery; laser industry; spin-off formation; Germany; human capital.;

    JEL classification:

    • L25 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Firm Performance
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups

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