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Social Identity and Social Exchange: Identification, Support, and Withdrawal from the Job


  • van Knippenberg, D.L.
  • van Dick, R.
  • Tavares, S.


Integrating insights from the social exchange perspective and the social identity perspective on the psychological relationship between the individual and the organization, we propose that evaluations of the support received from the organization and its representatives, and organizational identification interact in predicting withdrawal from the job. Specifically, the relationship of support with withdrawal is proposed to be weaker the stronger employees identify with the organization. This prediction was confirmed in two samples focusing on different operationalizations of support and withdrawal. Sample 1 concerned the interaction of organizational support and organizational identification in predicting turnover intentions, Sample 2 concerned the prediction of absenteeism from supervisor support and organizational identification. We conclude that the present study yields promising first evidence that may lay the basis for further integration of social exchange and social identity analyses of organizational behavior.

Suggested Citation

  • van Knippenberg, D.L. & van Dick, R. & Tavares, S., 2005. "Social Identity and Social Exchange: Identification, Support, and Withdrawal from the Job," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2005-093-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  • Handle: RePEc:ems:eureri:8497

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    Cited by:

    1. Karanges, Emma Ruth & Beatson, Amanda & Johnston, Kim & Lings, Ian, 2014. "Optimizing employee engagement with internal communication: A social exchange perspective," jbm - Journal of Business Market Management, Free University Berlin, Marketing Department, vol. 7(2), pages 329-353.
    2. Stijn Decoster & Jeroen Camps & Jeroen Stouten & Lore Vandevyvere & Thomas Tripp, 2013. "Standing by Your Organization: The Impact of Organizational Identification and Abusive Supervision on Followers’ Perceived Cohesion and Tendency to Gossip," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 118(3), pages 623-634, December.
    3. Ambreen Malik & Muhammad Naseer Akhtar & Usman Talat & Kirk Chang, 2019. "Transformational Changes and Sustainability: From the Perspective of Identity, Trust, Commitment, and Withdrawal," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(11), pages 1-21, June.
    4. Shen, Yimo & Jackson, Todd & Ding, Cody & Yuan, Denghua & Zhao, Lei & Dou, Yunlai & Zhang, Qinglin, 2014. "Linking perceived organizational support with employee work outcomes in a Chinese context: Organizational identification as a mediator," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 406-412.
    5. Vaneet Kashyap & Santosh Rangnekar, 2016. "Servant leadership, employer brand perception, trust in leaders and turnover intentions: a sequential mediation model," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 437-461, July.
    6. Mohammad Nashwan Alwaki, 2018. "An Evaluation of the Impact of Remuneration on Employee Attitude and Performance in Organizations," International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Human Resource Management Academic Research Society, International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, vol. 8(7), pages 410-420, July.
    7. DeConinck, James B., 2015. "Outcomes of ethical leadership among salespeople," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(5), pages 1086-1093.
    8. Qinxuan Gu & Thomas Tang & Wan Jiang, 2015. "Does Moral Leadership Enhance Employee Creativity? Employee Identification with Leader and Leader–Member Exchange (LMX) in the Chinese Context," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 126(3), pages 513-529, February.
    9. Walumbwa, Fred O. & Mayer, David M. & Wang, Peng & Wang, Hui & Workman, Kristina & Christensen, Amanda L., 2011. "Linking ethical leadership to employee performance: The roles of leader-member exchange, self-efficacy, and organizational identification," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 204-213, July.

    More about this item


    Organizational behavior; Organizational identification; Organizational support; Social identity;

    JEL classification:

    • L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior
    • M - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics
    • M10 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - General
    • M12 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - Personnel Management; Executives; Executive Compensation

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