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El estado de salud del adulto mayor en Uruguay

  • Maximo Rossi y Patricia Triunfo

A partir de la Encuesta Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) de la OPS-OMS (2001) se estiman los determinantes del estado de salud para los adultos mayores montevideanos (60 años y más). Se utilizan cuatro aproximaciones a dicho estado: limitaciones funcionales, autopercepción, enfermedades crónicas y una combinación de estas dos. En este último caso, las estimaciones permiten afirmar el 49% de los individuos tiene probabilidad de tener un Muy Buen estado de salud, el 34% un Buen estado, y el 17% un Mal estado. Fundamentalmente dos grupos aparecen con mayor riesgo sanitario: los menos educados y las mujeres. Para el promedio de la población no se encuentran diferencias por edad, salvo al utilizar como indicador de la salud las limitaciones funcionales, aumentando la probabilidad de tenerlas para los individuos de 80 años y más. Esto es compatible con la evidencia internacional en donde se encuentra que el aumento en la esperanza de vida no ha llevado a un aumento del tiempo de sufrimiento de enfermedades crónicas ni a un aumento de la tasa de prevalencia de las mismas. Una importante conclusión, es que las condiciones en los primeros años de vida son determinantes del estado de salud en las etapas finales de la vida. En este sentido, tanto una situación económica favorable, como no haber pasado hambre y haber tenido una excelente salud en los primeros 15 años, aumentan la probabilidad de que el adulto tenga un buen estado de salud. Como se señala en la literatura, la expansión en la educación y las mejoras nutricionales en las etapas iniciales de la vida han hecho más por el incremento en la longevidad que la medicina clínica. En un país donde los niveles de pobreza se concentra en los niños, se pueden prever problemas en la depreciación del stock de salud, por consiguiente en la depreciación del capital humano, menor productividad y crecimiento de la demanda de cuidados médicos al sector público a medida que envejezcan las cohortes actuales

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Paper provided by Econometric Society in its series Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings with number 113.

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Date of creation: 11 Aug 2004
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Handle: RePEc:ecm:latm04:113
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