Choice Set Heterogeneity and the Role of Advertising: An Analysis with Micro and Macro Data
We show how to use micro-level survey data from a tracking study on brand awareness in conjunction with data on sales and advertising expenditures to improve the specification, estimation, and interpretation of aggregate discrete choice models of demand. In a departure from the commonly made full information assumption, we incorporate limited information in the form of choice sets to reflect the fact that consumers may not be aware of all available brands at purchase time. We find that both the estimated brand constants and the price coefficient are biased downward when consumer heterogeneity in choice sets is ignored. These biased estimates lead to costly mistakes in firms' price setting. In addition, the tracking data allow us to identify separately two processes by which advertising influences market shares. We find that advertising has a direct effect on brand awareness (inclusion in choice set) in addition to its effect on consumer preferences (increase in utility). This improved understanding of how advertising works enhances our ability to make policy recommendations.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (650) 723-2146
Web page: http://gsbapps.stanford.edu/researchpapers/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Becker, Gary S & Murphy, Kevin M, 1993. "A Simple Theory of Advertising as a Good or Bad," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 108(4), pages 941-64, November.
- J. Miguel Villas-Boas & Russell S. Winer, 1999. "Endogeneity in Brand Choice Models," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(10), pages 1324-1338, October.
- Jean-Pierre Dubé & Günter Hitsch & Puneet Manchanda, 2005. "An Empirical Model of Advertising Dynamics," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 3(2), pages 107-144, June.
- Patrick Bajari & C. Lanier Benkard, 2005. "Demand Estimation with Heterogeneous Consumers and Unobserved Product Characteristics: A Hedonic Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(6), pages 1239-1276, December.
- Steven T. Berry, 1994. "Estimating Discrete-Choice Models of Product Differentiation," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 25(2), pages 242-262, Summer.
- Christopher T. Conlon & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2014.
"Demand Estimation Under Incomplete Product Availability,"
Boston College Working Papers in Economics
863, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Christopher T. Conlon & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2013. "Demand Estimation under Incomplete Product Availability," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(4), pages 1-30, November.
- Christopher T. Conlon & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2010. "Demand Estimation Under Incomplete Product Availability," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 799, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 07 Aug 2012.
- Christopher T. Conlon & Julie Holland Mortimer, 2008. "Demand Estimation Under Incomplete Product Availability," NBER Working Papers 14315, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marcel Boyer & Michel Moreaux, 1999.
"Strategic Underinvestment in Informative Advertising: The Cases of Substitutes and Complements,"
Canadian Journal of Economics,
Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(3), pages 654-672, May.
- Boyer, M. & Moreaux, M., 1998. "Strategic Underinvestment in Informative Advertising: the Cases of Subsitutes and Complements," Papers 98.502, Toulouse - GREMAQ.
- Tülin Erdem & Michael Keane & Baohong Sun, 2008. "The impact of advertising on consumer price sensitivity in experience goods markets," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 139-176, June.
- Sridhar Narayanan & Puneet Manchanda, 2009. "Heterogeneous Learning and the Targeting of Marketing Communication for New Products," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 28(3), pages 424-441, 05-06.
- Lakshman Krishnamurthi & S. P. Raj, 1991. "An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship Between Brand Loyalty and Consumer Price Elasticity," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 10(2), pages 172-183.
- Toker Doganoglu & Daniel Klapper, 2006. "Goodwill and dynamic advertising strategies," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(1), pages 5-29, March.
- C. Clark & Ulrich Doraszelski & Michaela Draganska, 2009. "The effect of advertising on brand awareness and perceived quality: An empirical investigation using panel data," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 207-236, June.
- Hoyer, Wayne D, 1984. " An Examination of Consumer Decision Making for a Common Repeat Purchase Product," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 11(3), pages 822-29, December.
- Steven Tenn, 2006. "Avoiding aggregation bias in demand estimation: A multivariate promotional disaggregation approach," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 383-405, December.
- Hauser, John R & Wernerfelt, Birger, 1990. " An Evaluation Cost Model of Consideration Sets," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(4), pages 393-408, March.
- Ulrich Doraszelski & Sarit Markovich, 2007. "Advertising dynamics and competitive advantage," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(3), pages 557-592, 09.
- Paulo Albuquerque & Bart J. Bronnenberg, 2009. "Estimating Demand Heterogeneity Using Aggregated Data: An Application to the Frozen Pizza Category," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 28(2), pages 356-372, 03-04.
- Aviv Nevo, 2000. "Mergers with Differentiated Products: The Case of the Ready-to-Eat Cereal Industry," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 31(3), pages 395-421, Autumn.
- Peter M. Guadagni & John D. C. Little, 1983. "A Logit Model of Brand Choice Calibrated on Scanner Data," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 2(3), pages 203-238.
- Nitin Mehta & Surendra Rajiv & Kannan Srinivasan, 2003. "Price Uncertainty and Consumer Search: A Structural Model of Consideration Set Formation," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 22(1), pages 58-84, June.
- Berry, Steven & Levinsohn, James & Pakes, Ariel, 1995. "Automobile Prices in Market Equilibrium," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 63(4), pages 841-90, July.
- Joseph Pancras, 2010. "A Framework to Determine the Value of Consumer Consideration Set Information for Firm Pricing Strategies," Computational Economics, Society for Computational Economics, vol. 35(3), pages 269-300, March.
- Michelle Sovinsky Goeree, 2008. "Limited Information and Advertising in the U.S. Personal Computer Industry," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 76(5), pages 1017-1074, 09.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecl:stabus:2063. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.