On policymakers' loss function and the evaluation of early warning systems
This paper introduces a new loss function and Usefulness measure for evaluating early warning systems (EWSs) that incorporate policymakers' preferences between issuing false alarms and missing crises, as well as individual observations. The novelty derives from three enhancements: i) accounting for unconditional probabilities of the classes, ii) computing the proportion of available Usefulness that the model captures, and iii) weighting observations by their importance for the policymaker. The proposed measures are model free such that they can be used to assess signals issued by any type of EWS, such as logit and probit analysis and the signaling approach, and flexible for any type of crisis EWSs, such as banking, debt and currency crises. Applications to two renowned EWSs, and comparisons to two commonly used evaluation measures, illustrate three key implications of the new measures: i) further highlights the importance of an objective criterion for choosing a final specification and threshold value, and for models to be useful ii) the need to be more concerned about the rare class and iii) the importance of correctly classifying observations of the most relevant entities. Beyond financial stability surveillance, this paper also opens the door for cost-sensitive evaluations of predictive models in other tasks. JEL Classification: E44, E58, F01, F37, G01
|Date of creation:||Feb 2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 60640 Frankfurt am Main, Germany|
Phone: +49 69 1344 0
Fax: +49 69 1344 6000
Web page: http://www.ecb.europa.eu/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Abhyankar, Abhay & Sarno, Lucio & Valente, Giorgio, 2005.
"Exchange rates and fundamentals: evidence on the economic value of predictability,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 325-348, July.
- Abhyankar, Abhay & Sarno, Lucio & Valente, Giorgio, 2004. "Exchange Rates and Fundamentals: Evidence on the Economic Value of Predictability," CEPR Discussion Papers 4365, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Giorgio Valente & Lucio Sarno & Abhay Abhayankar, 2004. "Exchange Rates and Fundamentals: Evidence on the Economic Value of Predictability," Working Papers wp04-01, Warwick Business School, Finance Group.
- Sarlin, Peter & Peltonen, Tuomas A., 2013.
"Mapping the state of financial stability,"
Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money,
Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 46-76.
- Jeffrey A. Frankel & Andrew K. Rose, 1996.
"Currency crashes in emerging markets: an empirical treatment,"
International Finance Discussion Papers
534, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Rose, Andrew K., 1996. "Currency crashes in emerging markets: An empirical treatment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-4), pages 351-366, November.
- Reinhart, Carmen & Kaminsky, Graciela & Lizondo, Saul, 1998.
"Leading Indicators of Currency Crises,"
6981, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Demirguc, Asli & Detragiache, Enrica, 2000.
"Monitoring Banking Sector Fragility: A Multivariate Logit Approach,"
World Bank Economic Review,
World Bank Group, vol. 14(2), pages 287-307, May.
- Enrica Detragiache & Asli DemirgÃ¼Ã§-Kunt, 1999. "Monitoring Banking Sector Fragility; A Multivariate Logit Approach," IMF Working Papers 99/147, International Monetary Fund.
- Bertrand Candelon & Elena Ivona Dumitrescu & Christophe Hurlin, 2012.
"How to Evaluate an Early Warning System? Towards a Unified Statistical Framework for Assessing Financial Crises Forecasting Methods,"
- Bertrand Candelon & Elena-Ivona Dumitrescu & Christophe Hurlin, 2012. "How to Evaluate an Early-Warning System: Toward a Unified Statistical Framework for Assessing Financial Crises Forecasting Methods," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 60(1), pages 75-113, April.
- Candelon Bertrand & Dumitrescu Elena-Ivona & Hurlin Christophe, 2010. "How to evaluate an Early Warning System? Towards a United Statistical Framework for Assessing Financial Crises Forecasting Methods," Research Memorandum 046, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
- El-Shagi, Makram & Knedlik, Tobias & von Schweinitz, Gregor, 2012.
"Predicting Financial Crises: The (Statistical) Significance of the Signals Approach,"
IWH Discussion Papers
3/2012, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
- El-Shagi, M. & Knedlik, T. & von Schweinitz, G., 2013. "Predicting financial crises: The (statistical) significance of the signals approach," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 76-103.
- Mathias Drehmann & Claudio Borio & Kostas Tsatsaronis, 2011.
"Anchoring countercyclical capital buffers: the role of credit aggregates,"
BIS Working Papers
355, Bank for International Settlements.
- Mathias Drehmann & Claudio Borio & Kostas Tsatsaronis, 2011. "Anchoring Countercyclical Capital Buffers: The role of Credit Aggregates," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 7(4), pages 189-240, December.
- Bussiere, Matthieu & Fratzscher, Marcel, 2008. "Low probability, high impact: Policy making and extreme events," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 111-121.
- Berg, Andrew & Pattillo, Catherine, 1999. "Predicting currency crises:: The indicators approach and an alternative," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 561-586, August.
- Axel Schimmelpfennig & Nouriel Roubini & Paolo Manasse, 2003. "Predicting Sovereign Debt Crises," IMF Working Papers 03/221, International Monetary Fund.
- A. Berg & C. Pattillo, 1999. "What Caused the Asian Crises: An Early Warning System Approach," Economic Notes, Banca Monte dei Paschi di Siena SpA, vol. 28(3), pages 285-334, November.
- Òscar Jordà & Moritz Schularick & Alan M Taylor, 2011.
"Financial Crises, Credit Booms, and External Imbalances: 140 Years of Lessons,"
IMF Economic Review,
Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 59(2), pages 340-378, June.
- Òscar Jordà & Moritz Schularick & Alan M. Taylor, 2010. "Financial Crises, Credit Booms, and External Imbalances: 140 Years of Lessons," NBER Working Papers 16567, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Fuertes, Ana-Maria & Kalotychou, Elena, 2006. "Early warning systems for sovereign debt crises: The role of heterogeneity," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 1420-1441, November.
- Òscar Jordà & Alan M. Taylor, 2011. "Performance Evaluation of Zero Net-Investment Strategies," NBER Working Papers 17150, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sarlin, Peter & Peltonen, Tuomas A., 2011. "Mapping the state of financial stability," BOFIT Discussion Papers 18/2011, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
- Alessi, Lucia & Detken, Carsten, 2011. "Quasi real time early warning indicators for costly asset price boom/bust cycles: A role for global liquidity," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 520-533, September.
- Kasper Lund-Jensen, 2012. "Monitoring Systemic Risk Basedon Dynamic Thresholds," IMF Working Papers 12/159, International Monetary Fund.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20131509. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Official Publications)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.