IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cty/dpaper/15-22.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Structural Estimation of Labor Adjustment Costs

Author

Listed:
  • Yaman, F.

Abstract

Structural estimation of labor adjustment costs suffers from a myriad of specification errors, largely due to data constraints. The literature usually assumes that adjustment decisions are made at the firm level, that adjustment happens at the frequency at which a firm is observed (typically annually or quarterly), and that adjustment costs are incurred on net changes in employment. This paper builds and estimates a dynamic optimization model of labor adjustment of establishments using data that permit 1) specifying any desired adjustment frequency (including daily adjustment), 2) using the micro unit of an establishment, 3) estimating the model based on net and on gross employment flows and 4) allowing for simultaneous hirings and separations. Results for adjustment costs depend crucially on the model specification. Only a monthly adjustment model yields positive cost parameters, while estimates from quarterly and annual adjustment models imply negative adjustment costs (that is adjustment implies a gain rather than a loss). Estimating the model on net employment changes imply hiring and separation costs of more than four annual median salaries, while the model on gross changes implies costs on the order of two annual median salaries. Adjustment costs differ significantly between small and large establishments. However, a static specification of the model performs equally well as the dynamic model with respect to out-of-sample predictions.

Suggested Citation

  • Yaman, F., 2016. "Structural Estimation of Labor Adjustment Costs," Working Papers 15/22, Department of Economics, City University London.
  • Handle: RePEc:cty:dpaper:15/22
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://openaccess.city.ac.uk/14770/1/Yaman%20-%20Economics-DP-15-22.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Cooper, Russell & Haltiwanger, John & Willis, Jonathan L., 2015. "Dynamics of labor demand: Evidence from plant-level observations and aggregate implications," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(1), pages 37-50.
    2. Nilsen, Oivind A. & Salvanes, Kjell G. & Schiantarelli, Fabio, 2007. "Employment changes, the structure of adjustment costs, and plant size," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 577-598, April.
    3. Rust, John, 1987. "Optimal Replacement of GMC Bus Engines: An Empirical Model of Harold Zurcher," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(5), pages 999-1033, September.
    4. Samuel Muehlemann & Harald Pfeifer, 2016. "The Structure of Hiring Costs in Germany: Evidence from Firm-Level Data," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(2), pages 193-218, April.
    5. Hamermesh, Daniel S, 1989. "Labor Demand and the Structure of Adjustment Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(4), pages 674-689, September.
    6. Magne K. Asphjell & Wilko Letterie & Øivind A. Nilsen & Gerard A. Pfann, 2014. "Sequentiality Versus Simultaneity: Interrelated Factor Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 96(5), pages 986-998, December.
    7. Hopenhayn, Hugo & Rogerson, Richard, 1993. "Job Turnover and Policy Evaluation: A General Equilibrium Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(5), pages 915-938, October.
    8. Burgess, Simon & Lane, Julia & Stevens, David, 2001. "Churning dynamics: an analysis of hires and separations at the employer level," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-14, January.
    9. Abel, Andrew B & Eberly, Janice C, 1994. "A Unified Model of Investment under Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1369-1384, December.
    10. Gerard A. Pfann & Franz C. Palm, 1993. "Asymmetric Adjustment Costs in Non-linear Labour Demand Models for the Netherlands and U.K. Manufacturing Sectors," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(2), pages 397-412.
    11. Ejarque, Joao & Portugal, Pedro, 2007. "Labor Adjustment Costs in a Panel of Establishments: A Structural Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 3091, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Pagan,Adrian & Ullah,Aman, 1999. "Nonparametric Econometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521355643, April.
    13. Victor Aguirregabiria, 1999. "The Dynamics of Markups and Inventories in Retailing Firms," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 66(2), pages 275-308.
    14. Victor Aguirregabiria & Cesar Alonso-Borrego, 2014. "Labor Contracts And Flexibility: Evidence From A Labor Market Reform In Spain," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 52(2), pages 930-957, April.
    15. Aguirregabiria, V., 1997. "Estimation of Dynamic Programming Models with Censored Dependent Variables," UWO Department of Economics Working Papers 9711, University of Western Ontario, Department of Economics.
    16. V. Joseph Hotz & Robert A. Miller, 1993. "Conditional Choice Probabilities and the Estimation of Dynamic Models," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 497-529.
    17. Aguirregabiria, Victor & Mira, Pedro, 2010. "Dynamic discrete choice structural models: A survey," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 156(1), pages 38-67, May.
    18. Abowd, John M. & Kramarz, Francis, 2003. "The costs of hiring and separations," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 499-530, October.
    19. Nicholas Bloom, 2009. "The Impact of Uncertainty Shocks," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(3), pages 623-685, May.
    20. Russell Cooper & John C. Haltiwanger & Jonathan L. Willis, 2010. "Euler-Equation Estimation for Discrete Choice Models: A Capital Accumulation Application," NBER Working Papers 15675, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    21. Victor Aguirregabiria & Pedro Mira, 2002. "Swapping the Nested Fixed Point Algorithm: A Class of Estimators for Discrete Markov Decision Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(4), pages 1519-1543, July.
    22. John M. Abowd & Patrick Corbel & Francis Kramarz, 1999. "The Entry And Exit Of Workers And The Growth Of Employment: An Analysis Of French Establishments," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(2), pages 170-187, May.
    23. Hamermesh, Daniel S, 1992. "A General Model of Dynamic Labor Demand," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(4), pages 733-737, November.
    24. Kramarz, Francis & Michaud, Marie-Laure, 2010. "The shape of hiring and separation costs in France," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 27-37, January.
    25. Samuel Bentolila & Giuseppe Bertola, 1990. "Firing Costs and Labour Demand: How Bad is Eurosclerosis?," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 57(3), pages 381-402.
    26. Daniel S. Hamermesh & Gerard A. Pfann, 1996. "Adjustment Costs in Factor Demand," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 34(3), pages 1264-1292, September.
    27. Abbring, Jaap H & Daljord, Øystein, 2016. "Identifying the Discount Factor in Dynamic Discrete Choice Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 11133, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    28. Lapatinas, Athanasios, 2009. "Labour adjustment costs: Estimation of a dynamic discrete choice model using panel data for Greek manufacturing firms," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 521-533, October.
    29. Víctor Aguirregabiria, 1997. "Estimation of dynamic programming models with censored decision variables," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 21(2), pages 167-208, May.
    30. Paola Rota, 2004. "Estimating Labor Demand with Fixed Costs," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 45(1), pages 25-48, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cty:dpaper:15/22. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Research Publications Librarian). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/decituk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.