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Do Unemployed Workers Benefit from Enterprise Zones? The French Experience

  • Gobillon, Laurent
  • Magnac, Thierry
  • Selod, Harris

This paper is a statistical evaluation of the 1997 enterprise zone program in France. We investigate whether the program increased the pace at which unemployed workers residing in targeted municipalities and surrounding areas find employment. The work relies on a two-stage analysis of unemployment spells drawn from an exhaustive dataset over the 1993-2003 period in the Paris region. We first estimate a duration model stratified by municipalities in order to recover semester-specific municipality effects net of individual observed heterogeneity. These effects are estimated both before and after the implementation of the program, allowing us to construct variants of difference-in-difference estimators of the impact of the program at the municipality level. Following extensive robustness checks, we conclude that enterprise zones have a very small but significant effect on the rate at which unemployed workers find a job. The effect remains localized and is shown to be significant only in the short run.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 8084.

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Date of creation: Oct 2010
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:8084
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  1. Peter S. Fisher, 1997. "Tax and spending incentives and enterprise zones," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Mar, pages 109-138.
  2. Gobillon, Laurent & Magnac, Thierry & Selod, Harris, 2007. "The Effect of Location on Finding a Job in the Paris Region," CEPR Discussion Papers 6199, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Jörn-Steffen Pischke & Alan Manning, 2006. "Comprehensive versus Selective Schooling in England in Wales: What Do We Know?," NBER Working Papers 12176, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Laurent Gobillon & Thierry Magnac & Harris Selod, 2010. "Do Unemployed Workers Benefit from Enterprise Zones ? The French Experience," Working Papers 2010-45, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  5. Bondonio, Daniele & Greenbaum, Robert T., 2007. "Do local tax incentives affect economic growth? What mean impacts miss in the analysis of enterprise zone policies," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 121-136, January.
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  7. Heckman, J.J. & Hotz, V.J., 1988. "Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods For Estimating The Impact Of Social Programs: The Case Of Manpower Training," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center 88-12, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
  8. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias, 2008. "Alternative approaches to evaluation in empirical microeconomics," CeMMAP working papers CWP26/08, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  9. Neumark, David & Kolko, Jed, 2010. "Do enterprise zones create jobs? Evidence from California's enterprise zone program," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 1-19, July.
  10. Ridder, Geert & Tunali, Insan, 1999. "Stratified partial likelihood estimation," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 193-232, October.
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  12. Cynthia L. Rogers & Jill L. Tao, 2004. "Quasi-Experimental Analysis of Targeted Economic Development Programs: Lessons from Florida," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 18(3), pages 269-285, August.
  13. Bondonio, Daniele & Engberg, John, 2000. "Enterprise zones and local employment: evidence from the states' programs," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 519-549, September.
  14. Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra E, 1997. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 605-54, October.
  15. Leslie E. Papke, 1991. "Tax Policy and Urban Development: Evidence From The Indiana Enterprise Zone Program," NBER Working Papers 3945, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Joseph G. Altonji & Lewis M. Segal, 1994. "Small sample bias in GMM estimation of covariance structures," Working Paper Series, Macroeconomic Issues 94-8, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  17. Mauer, David C. & Ott, Steven H., 1999. "On the Optimal Structure of Government Subsidies for Enterprise Zones and Other Locational Development Programs," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 421-450, May.
  18. Sylvie Blasco & François Fontaine, 2010. "Étudier le non-recours à l'assurance chômage," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 61(5), pages 933-943.
  19. Joel A. Elvery, 2009. "The Impact of Enterprise Zones on Resident Employment," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 23(1), pages 44-59, February.
  20. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias & Costas Meghir & John Van Reenen, 2004. "Evaluating the Employment Impact of a Mandatory Job Search Program," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(4), pages 569-606, 06.
  21. Raphael W. Bostic & Allen C. Prohofsky, 2006. "Enterprise Zones and Individual Welfare: A Case Study of California," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(2), pages 175-203.
  22. Busso, Matias & Kline, Patrick, 2008. "Do Local Economic Development Programs Work? Evidence from the Federal Empowerment Zone Program," Working Papers 36, Yale University, Department of Economics.
  23. Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias & Costas Meghir & John Van Reenen, 2001. "Evaluating the employment impact of a mandatory job search assistance program," IFS Working Papers W01/20, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  24. Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 2003. "Does Matching Overcome Lalonde's Critique of Nonexperimental Estimators?," University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity Working Papers 20035, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity.
  25. O'Keefe, Suzanne, 2004. "Job creation in California's enterprise zones: a comparison using a propensity score matching model," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 131-150, January.
  26. Patrick Sillard & Roland Rathelot, 2008. "Zones Franches Urbaines : quels effets sur l'emploi salarié et les créations d'établissements ?," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 415(1), pages 81-96.
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