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Zones Franches Urbaines : quels effets sur l'emploi salarié et les créations d'établissements ?

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  • Roland Rathelot
  • Patrick Sillard

Abstract

[eng] France set up 41 “Urban Free Zones” (Zones Franches Urbaines: ZFUs) on 1 January 2004 to replace selected “Urban Regeneration Zones” (Zones de Redynamisation Urbaine: ZRUs). In ZFUs, businesses enjoy a fi veyear exemption from employers’ social contributions, corporate income tax, local business tax, and property tax. To assess the impact of these measures on paid employment and business creation, we estimated the change in both variables for ZFUs and for a control group of ZRUs that did not change status. We determined the control group by matching (“propensity scores” method) to allow for the selection bias affecting the choice of ZFUs in the total ZRU set. We calculated rates of change for the ZRU-to-ZFU transition year and later years. We fi nd a signifi cant positive impact of the shift to ZFU status on business and job creation. However, the effects should be qualifi ed. Two-thirds of the increase in gross fl ows of local business units is due to an infl ux of economic activities from areas not targeted by the measures (i.e., these are transfers, not outright business creation). The presence of a ZFU does not appear to have a signifi cant adverse impact on neighbouring areas. The cost per job created or transferred to ZFUs seems high, but we lack evaluations of policies aimed at similar objectives with which we could compare the ZFU system. [spa] El 1 de enero de 2004 se crearon 41 Zonas Francas Urbanas (ZFU) para sustituir algunas Zonas de Redinamización Urbana (ZRU). En las ZFU, los establecimientos disfrutan durante cinco años de exoneraciones de cargas patronales, del impuesto de sociedades, del impuesto de actividad profesional y del impuesto sobre bienes inmuebles. Para valorar el impacto de estas medidas en el empleo asalariado y la creación de establecimientos, se calcula la evolución de estas dos variables para las ZFU y para un grupo de control de las ZRU que siguen siendo ZRU. Este grupo de control se determina por encuentro para tener en cuenta el sesgo de selección de las zonas ZFU en el conjunto de las ZRU (método de los índices de propensión). Los cálculos de evolución se refi eren al año de transición entre las ZRU y las ZFU, así como a los siguientes años. El impacto de la clasifi cación en ZFU sobre la creación de establecimientos y de empleos resulta entonces signifi cativo y positivo. No obstante, estos efectos deben relativizarse: el aumento de los fl ujos brutos de establecimientos procede en los dos tercios de de los casos del desplazamiento de actividades económicas procedentes de zonas no determinadas por los dispositivos (traslados y no creación de establecimientos ex nihilo). La vecindad no parece sufrir signifi cativamente por la presencia de una zona franca. El coste por empleo creado o trasladado hacia los ZFU por el dispositivo parece elevado, pero no existe evaluación de política sobre objetivos similares para compararlo. [fre] 41 Zones Franches Urbaines (ZFU) ont été créées le . 1er janvier 2004 pour remplacer certaines Zones de Redynamisation Urbaine (ZRU). Dans les ZFU, les établissements bénéfi cient pour une durée de cinq ans d’exonérations de charges patronales, d’impôt sur les sociétés, de taxe professionnelle et de taxe foncière. Pour évaluer l’impact de ces mesures sur l’emploi salarié et les créations d’établissements, l’évolution de ces deux variables est calculée pour les ZFU et pour un groupe témoin de ZRU restées ZRU. Ce groupe témoin est déterminé par appariement afi n de tenir compte du biais de sélection des zones ZFU dans l’ensemble des Zones Franches Urbaines: quels effets sur l’emploi salarié et les créations d’établissements? ZRU (méthode des scores de propension). Les calculs d’évolution portent sur l’année de la transition entre ZRU et ZFU ainsi que sur les années suivantes. L’impact du classement en ZFU sur les créations d’établissement et d’emplois s’avère alors signifi catif et positif. Cependant, ces effets doivent être relativisés: l’augmentation des fl ux bruts d’établissements résulte pour les deux tiers d’un déplacement d’activités économiques en provenance de zones non ciblées par le dispositifs (transferts et non pas création d’établissements ex nihilo). . Le voisinage ne semble pas souffrir signifi cativement de la présence d’une zone franche. Le coût par emploi créé ou déplacé vers les ZFU par le dispositif semble élevé mais il n’existe pas d’évaluation de politique portant sur des objectifs similaires à laquelle le comparer. [ger] 41 abgabenfreie Stadtgebiete (Zones Franches Urbaines, ZFU) wurden am 1. Januar 2004 gegründet und traten an die Stelle der Gebiete der städtischen Redynamisierung (Zones de Redynamisation Urbaine, ZRU). In den ZFU sind die Unternehmen fünf Jahre lang von den Arbeitgeberabgaben, der Körperschaftssteuer, der Gewerbesteuer und der Grundsteuer befreit. Um die Auswirkungen dieser Maßnahmen auf die Beschäftigung und die Existenzgründung zu evaluieren, wird die Entwicklung dieser beiden Variablen für die ZFU und für eine Gruppe von ZRU, die ZRU blieben, ermittelt. Diese Gruppe wird durch paarweise Zusammenstellung bestimmt, um die Verzerrung bei der Auswahl der ZFU unter allen ZRU zu berücksichtigen („Propensity-Score-Methode“). Die Entwicklung wird für das Jahr des Übergangs von den ZRU zu den ZFU sowie die darauffolgenden vier Jahre errechnet. Die Einstufung als ZFU hat auf die Existenzgründung und die Beschäftigung signifi kante und positive Auswirkungen. Allerdings müssen diese Effekte relativisiert werden denn die Zunahme der Bruttozufl üsse von Unternehmen resultiert zu zwei Dritteln aus einer Verlagerung von Wirtschaftstätigkeiten aus nicht von diesen Maßnahmen betroffenen Gebieten (d. h. Verlagerungen und keine wirklichen Existenzgründungen). Für die Nachbarschaft scheint die Anwesenheit eines solchen Gebiets keine negativen Folgen zu haben. Die Kosten, die durch die Schaffung oder Verlagerung von Arbeitsplätzen in solche Gebiete entstehen, sind hoch es liegt aber keine politische Bewertung ähnlicher Maßnahmen vor, mit der ein Vergleich angestellt werden könnte.

Suggested Citation

  • Roland Rathelot & Patrick Sillard, 2008. "Zones Franches Urbaines : quels effets sur l'emploi salarié et les créations d'établissements ?," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 415(1), pages 81-96.
  • Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2008_num_415_1_7021
    DOI: 10.3406/estat.2008.7021
    Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2008.7021
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    1. Florian MAYNERIS & Loriane PY, 2013. "The Efficiency Of Enterprise Zone Programs Some Conflicting Results?," Region et Developpement, Region et Developpement, LEAD, Universite du Sud - Toulon Var, vol. 38, pages 209-224.
    2. Givord, Pauline & Quantin, Simon & Trevien, Corentin, 2018. "A long-term evaluation of the first generation of French urban enterprise zones," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 149-161.
    3. Thierry MAYER & Florian MAYNERIS & Loriane PY, 2012. "The Impact of Urban Enterprise Zones on Establishments' Location Decisions: Evidence from French ZFUs," LIDAM Discussion Papers IRES 2012019, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
    4. Gobillon, Laurent & Magnac, Thierry & Selod, Harris, 2012. "Do unemployed workers benefit from enterprise zones? The French experience," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(9-10), pages 881-892.
    5. Anthony Briant & Miren Lafourcade & Benoît Schmutz, 2015. "Can Tax Breaks Beat Geography? Lessons from the French Enterprise Zone Experience," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 7(2), pages 88-124, May.
    6. Mathieu Bunel & Jean-Pascal Guironnet, 2011. "Earning Inequalities Between and Within Nests," Working Papers halshs-00868198, HAL.
    7. Givord, Pauline & Rathelot, Roland & Sillard, Patrick, 2013. "Place-based tax exemptions and displacement effects: An evaluation of the Zones Franches Urbaines program," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 151-163.
    8. Jean-Pascal Guironnet & Matthieu Bunel, 2011. "Earning Inequalities Between and Within Nests: A Multilevel Modeling Approach Applied to the Case of France," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201118, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
    9. Thierry Mayer & Florian Mayneris & Loriane Py, 2017. "The impact of Urban Enterprise Zones on establishment location decisions and labor market outcomes: evidence from France," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(4), pages 709-752.
    10. Louafi Bouzouina & Nathalie Havet & Pascal Pochet, 2015. "Mobilité quotidienne des actifs résidant en zones urbaines sensibles et accès à l'emploi : Une analyse économétrique à partir de l'Enquête Ménages Déplacements de Lyon," Post-Print halshs-01147102, HAL.
    11. Adrien Lorenceau, 2009. "L'impact d'exonérations fiscales sur la création d'établissements et l'emploi en France rurale : une approche par discontinuité de la régression," Working Papers halshs-00575100, HAL.
    12. Buda, Rodolphe, 2011. "Séries longues d'emploi salarié régional sectoriel français 1967–2006 [French sectoral and regional salaried employment long run time series 1967-2006]," MPRA Paper 34888, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Adrien Lorenceau, 2009. "L’impact d’exonérations fiscales sur la création d’établissements et l’emploi en France rurale : une approche par discontinuité de la régression," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 427(1), pages 27-62.
    14. Mireille Elbaum, 2011. "Le financement de la protection sociale : quelles perspectives au-delà des solutions miracles," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2011-27, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
    15. Thierry Mayer & Florian Mayneris & Loriane Py, 2017. "The impact of Urban Enterprise Zones on establishment location decisions and labor market outcomes: evidence from France," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(4), pages 709-752.
    16. M. Poulhès, 2015. "Are Enterprise Zones Benefits Capitalized into Commercial Property Values? The French case," Documents de Travail de l'Insee - INSEE Working Papers g2015-13, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques.
    17. Damien Bricard & Zeynep Or & Anne Penneau, 2018. "Méthodologie de l’évaluation d’impact de l’expérimentation Parcours santé des aînés (Paerpa)," Working Papers DT74, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Jun 2018.
    18. Pauline Givord, 2011. "Essay on Four Issues in Public Policy Evaluation," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/53r60a8s3ku, Sciences Po.

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