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Credit within the Firm

Author

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  • Guiso, Luigi
  • Pistaferri, Luigi
  • Schivardi, Fabiano

Abstract

We exploit time variation in the degree of development of local credit markets and matched employer-employee data to assess the role of the firm as an internal credit market. In less developed local credit markets firms can offer a flatter wage-tenure profile than firms in more developed credit markets to lend implicitly to their workers or offer a steeper profile to implicitly borrow from their workers. We find that firms located in less financially developed markets offer wages that are lower at the beginning of tenure and grow faster than those offered by firms in more financially developed markets, helping firms finance their operations by raising funds from workers. Because we control for local market effects and only exploit time variation in the degree of local financial development induced by an exogenous liberalization, the effect we find is unlikely to reflect unobserved local factors that systematically affect wage tenure profiles. The size of implicit loans is larger for firms with more problematic access to bank credit and workers less likely to face credit constraints. The amount of credit generated by implicit lending within the firm is economically important and can be as large as 30% of bank lending. Consistent with credit market imperfections opening up trade opportunities within the firm, we find that the internal rate of return of implicit loans lies between the rate at which workers savings are remunerated in the market and the rate firms pay on their loans from banks.

Suggested Citation

  • Guiso, Luigi & Pistaferri, Luigi & Schivardi, Fabiano, 2010. "Credit within the Firm," CEPR Discussion Papers 7793, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:7793
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    1. Lagakos, David & Moll, Benjamin & Porzio, Tommaso & Qian, Nancy, 2012. "Experience Matters: Human Capital and Development Accounting," CEPR Discussion Papers 9253, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Selim Gulesci, 2012. "Labor-tying and poverty in a rural economy:evidence from bangladesh," Working Papers 460, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
    3. Angelo Secchi & Federico Tamagni & Chiara Tomasi, 2011. "Exporting under financial constraints: margins, switching dynamics and prices," LEM Papers Series 2011/24, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    4. Laurent Bach & Nicolas Serrano-Velarde, 2009. "The Power of Dynastic Commitment," Working Papers 0924, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    5. Giulio Bottazzi & Angelo Secchi & Federico Tamagni, 2014. "Financial constraints and firm dynamics," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(1), pages 99-116, January.
    6. Alexandra D'Onofrio & Pierluigi Murro, 2013. "Local banking development and income distribution across Italian provinces," Working Papers CASMEF 1307, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli.
    7. Angelo Secchi & Federico Tamagni & Chiara Tomasi, 2016. "Financial constraints and firm exports: accounting for heterogeneity, self-selection, and endogeneity," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(5), pages 813-827.
    8. Angelo Secchi & Federico Tamagni & Chiara Tomasi, 2016. "Export price adjustments under financial constraints," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 49(3), pages 1057-1085, August.
    9. Marco Pagano & Giovanni Pica, 2012. "Finance and employment," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 27(69), pages 5-55, January.
    10. Atsuko Tanaka, "undated". "Who bears the cost of workers' health-related presenteeism and absenteeism," Working Papers 2016-31, Department of Economics, University of Calgary, revised 10 May 2016.
    11. Paula Garda & Volker Ziemann, 2014. "Economic Policies and Microeconomic Stability: A Literature Review and Some Empirics," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1115, OECD Publishing.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    financial frictions; Implicit contracts; tenure profile; wage setting;

    JEL classification:

    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • J3 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs
    • L2 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior

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