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Refinements of rationalizability for normal-form games

Author

Listed:
  • HERINGS, Jean - Jacques

    (CentER and Department of Econometrics, Tilburg University)

  • VANNETELBOSCH, Vincent

    () (Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE), Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Louvain la Neuve, Belgium)

Abstract

In normal-form games, rationalizability (Bernheim [3], Pearce [11]) on its own fails to exclude some very implausible strategy choices. Three main refinements of ra- tionalizability have been proposed in the literature: cautious, perfect, and proper rationalizability. Nevertheless, some of these refinements also fail to eliminate un- reasonable outcomes and suffer from several drawbacks. Therefore, we introduce the trembling-hand rationalizability concept, where the players’ actions have to be best responses also against perturbed conjectures. We also propose another refinement: weakly perfect rationalizability, where players’ actions that are not best responses are only played with a very small probability. We show the relationship between perfect rationalizability and weakly perfect ratio- nalizability as well as the relationship between proper rationalizability and weakly perfect rationalizability : weakly perfect rationalizability is a weaker refinement than both perfect and proper rationalizability. Moreover, in two-player games it holds that weakly perfect rationalizability is a weaker refinement than trembling-hand rational- izability. The other relationships between the various refinements are illustrated by means of examples. For the relationship between any other two refinements we give examples showing that the remaining set of strategies corresponding to the first re- finement can be either smaller or larger than the one corresponding to the second refinement.

Suggested Citation

  • HERINGS, Jean - Jacques & VANNETELBOSCH, Vincent, 1997. "Refinements of rationalizability for normal-form games," CORE Discussion Papers 1997002, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  • Handle: RePEc:cor:louvco:1997002
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    File URL: https://uclouvain.be/en/research-institutes/immaq/core/dp-1997.html
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. John C. Harsanyi & Reinhard Selten, 1988. "A General Theory of Equilibrium Selection in Games," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262582384, January.
    2. Asheim, G.B. & Dufwenberg, M., 1996. "Admissibility and Common Knowledge," Discussion Paper 1996-16, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    3. Ben-Porath, Elchanan & Dekel, Eddie, 1992. "Signaling future actions and the potential for sacrifice," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 36-51.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Heifetz, Aviad & Meier, Martin & Schipper, Burkhard C., 2013. "Dynamic unawareness and rationalizable behavior," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 50-68.
    2. J. J. Herings & A. Mauleon & V. Vannetelbosch, 2000. "Social Rationalizability," THEMA Working Papers 2000-36, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    3. A. Mauleon & V. Vannetelbosch, 2000. "Coalitional Negotiation with Monitoring," THEMA Working Papers 2000-35, THEMA (THéorie Economique, Modélisation et Applications), Université de Cergy-Pontoise.
    4. Herings, P. Jean-Jacques & Mauleon, Ana & Vannetelbosch, Vincent J., 2004. "Rationalizability for social environments," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 135-156, October.
    5. Asheim,G.B., 1999. "Proper consistency," Memorandum 31/1999, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    6. Mauleon, Ana & Vannetelbosch, Vincent, 2004. "Bargaining with endogenous deadlines," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 321-335, July.
    7. P. Jean-Jacques Herings & Ana Mauleon & Vincent J. Vannetelbosch, 2004. "Fuzzy play, matching devices and coordination failures," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer;Game Theory Society, vol. 32(4), pages 519-531, August.
    8. Vincent J. Vannetelbosch & P. Jean-Jacques Herings, 2000. "The equivalence of the Dekel-Fudenberg iterative procedure and weakly perfect rationalizability," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 15(3), pages 677-687.
    9. Vincent Vannetelbosch, 1999. "Alternating-Offer Bargaining and Common Knowledge of Rationality," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 111-138, October.
    10. Ana Mauleon & Vincent Vannetelbosch, 2003. "Farsightedness and Cautiousness in Coalition Formation," Working Papers 2003.52, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    11. Mario Gilli, 2002. "Iterated Admissibility as Solution Concept in Game Theory," Working Papers 47, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2002.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    rationalizability; refinements;

    JEL classification:

    • C72 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - Noncooperative Games

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