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Do Immigrants Displace Native Workers? Evidence from Matched Panel Data

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  • Pedro S. Martins, Matloob Piracha and José Varejão

Abstract

Using matched employer-employee data, we analyse the impact of immigrants on natives’ employment in Portugal. Using different model specifications, we show that the natives and immigrants are ‘complements’ at most occupation levels, in the sense that both types are hired when the number of immigrants is increasing. Controlling for different skill-level groups as well as for temporary and permanent jobs, the estimates show that, contrary to the evidence from some existing literature, the natives at the lower end of the skills spectrum are not affected by the presence of immigrants as well. There is, however, some evidence that when the number of immigrants in the firm is decreasing, natives tend to replace immigrants.

Suggested Citation

  • Pedro S. Martins, Matloob Piracha and José Varejão, 2013. "Do Immigrants Displace Native Workers? Evidence from Matched Panel Data," Working Papers 44, Queen Mary, University of London, School of Business and Management, Centre for Globalisation Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:cgs:wpaper:44
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    1. Adriana Kugler & Mutlu Yuksel, 2008. "Effects of Low-Skilled Immigration on U.S. Natives: Evidence from Hurricane Mitch," NBER Working Papers 14293, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Card, David, 2001. "Immigrant Inflows, Native Outflows, and the Local Labor Market Impacts of Higher Immigration," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(1), pages 22-64, January.
    3. George J. Borjas, 1995. "The Economic Benefits from Immigration," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 3-22, Spring.
    4. Jörn-Steffen Pischke & Johannes Velling, 1997. "Employment Effects Of Immigration To Germany: An Analysis Based On Local Labor Markets," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(4), pages 594-604, November.
    5. Rudolf Winter-Ebmer & Josef Zweimüller, 1999. "Do immigrants displace young native workers: The Austrian experience," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 12(2), pages 327-340.
    6. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 1998. "East-West Trade and Migration: The Austro-German Case," IZA Discussion Papers 2, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Raquel Carrasco & Juan Ramón García & Ana Carolina Ortega, "undated". "The Effect of Immigration on the Employment Opportunities of Native-Born Workers: Some Evidence for Spain," Working Papers 2004-17, FEDEA.
    8. Venturini, Alessandra & Villosio, Claudia, 2002. "Are Immigrants Competing with Natives in the Italian Labour Market? The Employment Effect," IZA Discussion Papers 467, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. George J. Borjas, 2003. "The Labor Demand Curve is Downward Sloping: Reexamining the Impact of Immigration on the Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 9755, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Anabela Carneiro & Natércia Fortuna & José Varejão, 2012. "Immigrants at new destinations: how they fare and why," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 25(3), pages 1165-1185, July.
    11. Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj & Munch, Jakob R. & Skaksen, Jan Rose, 2009. "Do Immigrants Take the Jobs of Native Workers?," IZA Discussion Papers 4111, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    12. Bartel, Ann P, 1989. "Where Do the New U.S. Immigrants Live?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 7(4), pages 371-391, October.
    13. George J. Borjas & Jeffrey Grogger & Gordon H. Hanson, 2008. "Imperfect Substitution between Immigrants and Natives: A Reappraisal," NBER Working Papers 13887, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. John M. Abowd & Richard B. Freeman, 1991. "Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number abow91-1.
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    1. repec:eee:eecrev:v:96:y:2017:i:c:p:62-82 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Mitaritonna, Cristina & Orefice, Gianluca & Peri, Giovanni, 2014. "Immigrants and Firms' Productivity: Evidence from France," IZA Discussion Papers 8063, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Anette Haas & Michael Lucht, 2013. "Heterogeneous Firms and Imperfect Substitution: The Productivity Effect of Migrants," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2013019, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
    4. Lucht, Michael & Haas, Anette, 2015. "The productivity effect of migrants : wage cost advantages and heterogeneous firms," IAB Discussion Paper 201505, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    5. Anette Haas & Michael Lucht & Norbert Schanne, 2012. "Why to employ both migrants and natives? A study on task-specific substitutability," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2012026, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
    6. Mitaritonna, Cristina & Orefice, Gianluca & Peri, Giovanni, 2017. "Immigrants and firms’ outcomes: Evidence from France," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 62-82.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    matched employer-employee data; displacement; immigrants.;

    JEL classification:

    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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