IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cfl/wpaper/2017-01.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Taxes, Transfers, and Women’s Labor Supply in the United States

Author

Listed:
  • Melanie Guldi

    () (University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL)

  • Lucie Schmidt

    ()

Abstract

The U.S. tax and transfer system generates revenue and provides safety net programs that move millions out of poverty. Since women are more likely to live in poverty, they are more likely to qualify for means-tested transfers. The structure of taxation in the U.S. often penalizes secondary earners, who are usually women. These programs alter work incentives and consequently may affect labor supply decisions. In this chapter, we examine the empirical evidence on the effects of taxes and transfers on the labor supply of women in the U.S. We show that much has changed since 1990, with the biggest shift being a change from cash transfers via welfare to refundable tax credits to workers. Overall, the evidence we review shows women have higher labor force participation and are less responsive to changes in after-tax wages than they were before 1990, but the labor supply effects vary substantially by program considered.

Suggested Citation

  • Melanie Guldi & Lucie Schmidt, 2017. "Taxes, Transfers, and Women’s Labor Supply in the United States," Working Papers 2017-01, University of Central Florida, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:cfl:wpaper:2017-01
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.itd.bus.ucf.edu/cdn/economics/workingpapers/2017-01.pdf
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Robert Kaestner & Bowen Garrett & Jiajia Chen & Anuj Gangopadhyaya & Caitlyn Fleming, 2017. "Effects of ACA Medicaid Expansions on Health Insurance Coverage and Labor Supply," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 36(3), pages 608-642, June.
    2. Marianne Bitler & Hilary Hoynes, 2016. "The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same? The Safety Net and Poverty in the Great Recession," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(S1), pages 403-444.
    3. Aaron S. Yelowitz, 1995. "The Medicaid Notch, Labor Supply, and Welfare Participation: Evidence from Eligibility Expansions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 909-939.
    4. Moffitt, Robert, 1992. "Incentive Effects of the U.S. Welfare System: A Review," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(1), pages 1-61, March.
    5. Keane, Michael & Moffitt, Robert, 1998. "A Structural Model of Multiple Welfare Program Participation and Labor Supply," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(3), pages 553-589, August.
    6. Bruce D. Meyer & Dan T. Rosenbaum, 2001. "Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(3), pages 1063-1114.
    7. Marianne P. Bitler & Jonah B. Gelbach & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2006. "What Mean Impacts Miss: Distributional Effects of Welfare Reform Experiments," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(4), pages 988-1012, September.
    8. Neeraj Kaushal & Robert Kaestner, 2001. "From Welfare to Work: Has Welfare Reform Worked?," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 699-719.
    9. Moffitt, Robert A. (ed.), 2016. "Economics of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Volume II," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226392493, October.
    10. repec:uwp:jhriss:v:52:y:2017:i:2:p:319-350 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Marianne Bitler & Hilary Hoynes & Elira Kuka, 2017. "Do In-Work Tax Credits Serve as a Safety Net?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 52(2), pages 319-350.
    12. Marc K. Chan, 2013. "A Dynamic Model of Welfare Reform," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(3), pages 941-1001, May.
    13. Schoeni, R.F. & Blank, R.M., 2000. "What Has Welfare Reform Accomplished? Impacts on Welfare Participation, Employment, Income, Poverty, and Family Structure," Papers 00-02, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
    14. Michael P. Keane & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 2010. "The Role Of Labor And Marriage Markets, Preference Heterogeneity, And The Welfare System In The Life Cycle Decisions Of Black, Hispanic, And White Women," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 51(3), pages 851-892, August.
    15. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2007. "Changes in the Labor Supply Behavior of Married Women: 1980–2000," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25, pages 393-438.
    16. Dahl, Molly & DeLeire, Thomas & Schwabish, Jonathan, 2009. "Stepping Stone or Dead End? The Effect of the EITC on Earnings Growth," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 62(2), pages 329-346, June.
    17. Nezih Guner & Remzi Kaygusuz & Gustavo Ventura, 2012. "Taxation and Household Labour Supply," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(3), pages 1113-1149.
    18. Susan L. Averett & H. Elizabeth Peters & Donald M. Waldman, 1997. "Tax Credits, Labor Supply, And Child Care," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(1), pages 125-135, February.
    19. Jeffrey Grogger, 2003. "The Effects of Time Limits, the EITC, and Other Policy Changes on Welfare Use, Work, and Income among Female-Headed Families," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(2), pages 394-408, May.
    20. Nada Eissa & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 1996. "Labor Supply Response to the Earned Income Tax Credit," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(2), pages 605-637.
    21. Eissa, Nada & Hoynes, Hilary Williamson, 2004. "Taxes and the labor market participation of married couples: the earned income tax credit," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(9-10), pages 1931-1958, August.
    22. Strumpf, Erin, 2011. "Medicaid's effect on single women's labor supply: Evidence from the introduction of Medicaid," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 531-548, May.
    23. Manasi Deshpande, 2016. "Does Welfare Inhibit Success? The Long-Term Effects of Removing Low-Income Youth from the Disability Rolls," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 106(11), pages 3300-3330, November.
    24. Hoynes, Hilary Williamson & Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore, 2012. "Work incentives and the Food Stamp Program," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(1), pages 151-162.
    25. Goldin, Claudia, 2006. "The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women’s Employment, Education, and Family," Scholarly Articles 2943933, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    26. Philippe Wingender & Sara LaLumia, 2015. "Income Effects in Labor Supply: Evidence from Child-Related Tax Benefits," Department of Economics Working Papers 2015-04, Department of Economics, Williams College.
    27. LaLumia, Sara, 2008. "The effects of joint taxation of married couples on labor supply and non-wage income," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(7), pages 1698-1719, July.
    28. Claudia Goldin, 2006. "The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 1-21, May.
    29. Fitzpatrick, Katie & Thompson, Jeffrey P., 2010. "The Interaction of Metropolitan Cost-of-Living and the Federal Earned Income Tax Credit: One Size Fits All?," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 63(3), pages 419-445, September.
    30. Craig Garthwaite & Tal Gross & Matthew J. Notowidigdo, 2014. "Public Health Insurance, Labor Supply, and Employment Lock," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 129(2), pages 653-696.
    31. repec:aea:aejpol:v:9:y:2017:i:2:p:124-54 is not listed on IDEAS
    32. Christopher A. Swann, 2005. "Welfare Reform When Recipients Are Forward-Looking," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 40(1).
    33. Alexander Frankel, 2014. "Taxation of Couples under Assortative Mating," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 6(3), pages 155-177, August.
    34. Laura Dague & Thomas DeLeire & Lindsey Leininger, 2017. "The Effect of Public Insurance Coverage for Childless Adults on Labor Supply," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 124-154, May.
    35. Black, Dan A. & Kolesnikova, Natalia & Taylor, Lowell J., 2014. "Why do so few women work in New York (and so many in Minneapolis)? Labor supply of married women across US cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 59-71.
    36. Pauline Leung & Alexandre Mas, 2016. "Employment Effects of the ACA Medicaid Expansions," Working Papers 594, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    37. Moffitt, Robert A. (ed.), 2016. "Economics of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Volume I," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, number 9780226370477, October.
    38. Robert A. Moffitt, 2016. "Economics of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Volume 2," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number moff-3, December.
    39. Sandra Decker & Frederic Selck, 2012. "The effect of the original introduction of Medicaid on welfare participation and female labor supply," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 541-556, December.
    40. Hamersma, Sarah & Kim, Matthew, 2009. "The effect of parental Medicaid expansions on job mobility," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 761-770, July.
    41. Manasi Deshpande, 2016. "The Effect of Disability Payments on Household Earnings and Income: Evidence from the SSI Children's Program," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 98(4), pages 638-654, October.
    42. repec:ntj:journl:v:70:y:2017:i:1:p:11-52 is not listed on IDEAS
    43. Singleton, Perry, 2011. "The Effect of Taxes on Taxable Earnings: Evidence From the 2001 and Related U.S. Federal Tax Acts," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 64(2), pages 323-351, June.
    44. Mark G. Duggan & Melissa Schettini Kearney, 2007. "The impact of child SSI enrollment on household outcomes," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 26(4), pages 861-886.
    45. Robert A. Moffitt, 2016. "Economics of Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, Volume 1," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number moff14-1, December.
    46. James P. Ziliak, 2007. "Making Work Pay: Changes in Effective Tax Rates and Guarantees in U.S. Transfer Programs, 1983–2002," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(3).
    47. Lucie Schmidt & Lara Shore-Sheppard & Tara Watson, 2016. "The Effect of Safety-Net Programs on Food Insecurity," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 51(3), pages 589-614.
    48. repec:bla:coecpo:v:35:y:2017:i:3:p:457-471 is not listed on IDEAS
    49. Michael P. Keane, 2011. "Labor Supply and Taxes: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 49(4), pages 961-1075, December.
    50. Cuffey, Joel & Mykerezi, Elton & Beatty, Timothy, 2015. "Food Assistance and Labor Force Outcomes of Childless Adults: Evidence from the CPS," 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, July 26-28, San Francisco, California 205821, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    taxes; transfer programs; women’s labor supply; Earned Income Tax Credit; Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; Medicaid;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cfl:wpaper:2017-01. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (John Paul). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/deucfus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.