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Is there a Double-Negative Effect? Gender and Ethnic Wage Differentials

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  • Daniela Piazzalunga

Abstract

This paper investigates the gender and ethnic wage differentials for female immigrants, applying the Oaxaca decomposition to estimate the level of discrimination. The gender pay gap is quite small (7.42%), but it's not explained by observable differences, whilst the ethnic wage gap is larger (27.11%), but the explained components account for about 30%. Ultimately, we will evaluate how the multiple levels of discrimination (due to being a woman and a foreigner at the same time) intersect, following the decomposition suggested by Shamsuddin (1998). The double-negative effect is estimated to be 56-62%.

Suggested Citation

  • Daniela Piazzalunga, 2013. "Is there a Double-Negative Effect? Gender and Ethnic Wage Differentials," CHILD Working Papers Series 11, Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic Economics (CHILD) - CCA.
  • Handle: RePEc:cca:wchild:11
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kimberly Bayard & Judith Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth Troske, 1999. "Why are Racial and Ethnic Wage Gaps Larger for Men than for Women? Exploring the Role of Segregation," NBER Working Papers 6997, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Alicia Adsera & Barry Chiswick, 2007. "Are there gender and country of origin differences in immigrant labor market outcomes across European destinations?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 20(3), pages 495-526, July.
    3. Husted, Leif & Skyt Nielsen, Helena & Rosholm, Michael & Smith, Nina, 2000. "Hit Twice? Danish Evidence on the Double-Negative Effect on the Wages of Immigrant Women," CLS Working Papers 00-6, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
    4. Aslan Zorlu, 2003. "Do ethnicity and sex matter in pay? Analyses of 8 ethnic groups in the Dutch labour market," NIMA Working Papers 21, Núcleo de Investigação em Microeconomia Aplicada (NIMA), Universidade do Minho.
    5. Deborah Anderson & David Shapiro, 1996. "Racial Differences in Access to High-Paying Jobs and the Wage Gap between Black and White Women," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 49(2), pages 273-286, January.
    6. Kanchana Ruwanpura, 2008. "Multiple identities, multiple-discrimination: A critical review," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(3), pages 77-105.
    7. Alessandra Venturini & Claudia Villosio, 2008. "Labour-market assimilation of foreign workers in Italy," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(3), pages 518-542, Autumn.
    8. Chiswick, Barry R, 1978. "The Effect of Americanization on the Earnings of Foreign-born Men," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 897-921, October.
    9. Dustmann, Christian & Schmidt, Christoph M., 2000. "The Wage Performance of Immigrant Women: Full-Time Jobs, Part-Time Jobs, and the Role of Selection," IZA Discussion Papers 233, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    11. Phelps, Edmund S, 1972. "The Statistical Theory of Racism and Sexism," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 659-661, September.
    12. Adriano Paggiaro, 2013. "How do immigrants fare during the downturn? Evidence from matching comparable natives," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 28(8), pages 229-258.
    13. Helena Skyt Nielsen & Michael Rosholm & Nina Smith & Leif Husted, 2004. "Qualifications, discrimination, or assimilation? An extended framework for analysing immigrant wage gaps," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 855-883, December.
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    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Is there a Double-Negative Effect? Gender and Ethnic Wage Differentials.
      by maximorossi in NEP-LTV blog on 2013-09-25 17:16:41

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    Cited by:

    1. Mehtap Akguc & Ana Ferrer, 2015. "Educational Attainment and Labor Market Performance: An Analysis of Immigrants in France," Working Papers 1505, University of Waterloo, Department of Economics, revised Feb 2015.
    2. Daniela Piazzalunga & Maria Laura Di Tommaso, 2019. "The increase of the gender wage gap in Italy during the 2008-2012 economic crisis," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 17(2), pages 171-193, June.
    3. Töpfer, Marina & Castagnetti, Carolina & Rosti, Luisa, 2016. "Discriminate me - if you can! The Disappearance of the Gender Pay Gap among Public-Contest Selected Employees," VfS Annual Conference 2016 (Augsburg): Demographic Change 145905, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    4. Sabrina Marchetti & Daniela Piazzalunga & Alessandra Venturini, 2014. "Does Italy represent an opportunity for temporary migrants from the eastern partnership countries?," IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 3(1), pages 1-20, December.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Immigration; gender; wage discrimination; Oaxaca decomposition; double-negative effect;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers
    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing

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