Inequalities' Impacts: State of the Art Review
By way of introduction This report provides the ﬁ rm foundation for anchoring the research that will be performed by the GINI project. It subsequently considers the ﬁ elds covered by each of the main work packages: ● inequalities of income, wealth and education, ● social impacts, ● political and cultural impacts, and ● policy effects on and of inequality. Though extensive this review does not pretend to be exhaustive. The review may be “light” in some respects and can be expanded when the analysis evolves. In each of the four ﬁ elds a signiﬁ cant number of discussion papers will be produced, in total well over 100. These will add to the state of the art while also covering new round and generating results that will be incorporated in the Analysis Reports to be prepared for the work packages. In that sense, the current review provides the starting point. At the same time, the existing body of knowledge is broader or deeper depending on the particular ﬁ eld and its tradition of research. The very motivation of GINI’s focused study of the impacts of inequalities is that a systematic study is lacking and relatively little is known about those impacts. This also holds for the complex collection of, the effects that inequality can have on policy making and the contributions that policies can make to mitigating inequalities but also to enhancing them. By contrast, analyses of inequality itself are many, not least because there is a wide array of inequalities; inequalities have become more easily studied comparatively and much of that analysis has a signiﬁ cant descriptive ﬂ avour that includes an extensive discussion of measurement issues. @GINI hopes to go beyond that and cover the impacts of inequalities at the same time
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- Wößmann, Ludger, 2008.
"Efficiency and equity of European education and training policies,"
Munich Reprints in Economics
19667, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Ludger Wößmann, 2008. "Efficiency and equity of European education and training policies," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 15(2), pages 199-230, April.
- Ludger Woessmann, 2006. "Efficiency and Equity of European Education and Training Policies," CESifo Working Paper Series 1779, CESifo Group Munich.
- Wolff, Edward N, 1992. "Changing Inequality of Wealth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 552-58, May.
- Ludger Woesmann, 2003.
"Schooling Resources, Educational Institutions and Student Performance: the International Evidence,"
Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics,
Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 65(2), pages 117-170, 05.
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- Wößmann, Ludger, 2003. "Schooling resources, educational institutions and student performance: The international evidence," Munich Reprints in Economics 19661, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Wößmann, Ludger, 2000. "Schooling Resources, Educational Institutions, and Student Performance: The International Evidence," Kiel Working Papers 983, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- Ludger Woessmann, 2007.
"Fundamental Determinants of School Efficiency and Equity: German States as a Microcosm for OECD Countries,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
1981, CESifo Group Munich.
- Woessmann, Ludger, 2007. "Fundamental Determinants of School Efficiency and Equity: German States as a Microcosm for OECD Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 2880, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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- Jeffrey G. Williamson, 1968. "Personal Saving in Developing Nations: An Intertemporal Cross‐Section from Asia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 44(2), pages 194-210, 06.
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"International Evidence on School Tracking: A Review,"
CESifo DICE Report,
Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 7(1), pages 26-34, 04.
- Wößmann, Ludger, 2009. "International evidence on school tracking: A review," Munich Reprints in Economics 19686, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Wood Júnior, Thomaz, 1995. "Workers," RAE - Revista de Administração de Empresas, FGV-EAESP Escola de Administração de Empresas de São Paulo (Brazil), vol. 35(2), January.
- Ludger Wossmann, 2005. "The effect heterogeneity of central examinations: evidence from TIMSS, TIMSS-Repeat and PISA," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 143-169.
- Adrian Wood, 1995. "How Trade Hurt Unskilled Workers," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(3), pages 57-80, Summer.
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