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Tomato Farmers and Modern Markets in Nicaragua: A Duration Analysis

  • Hernandez, Ricardo
  • Reardon, Thomas

This paper explores whether farm land and non-land assets determine the participation of tomato growers in modern markets in Nicaragua, and how farmers’ duration as supermarket suppliers affects the farm technology they use. The methodology is based on a survival analysis approach. We use data from a stratified random sample of tomato farmers in Nicaragua over a 10-year period. Our results show that participation in supermarket supply chains as supermarket supplier is not determined by farm size, contrary to a common hypothesis, and thus small farmers can be supermarket suppliers. However, non-land assets are important determinants of being in the modern channel: these assets include irrigation, nonfarm assets (linked to nonfarm employment) and education. Duration as a supermarket supplier is positively correlated with farm asset accumulation and the use of modern technology (mainly in the form of capital-led intensification) of tomato farming – but negatively correlated with the share of highly toxic pesticides in overall pesticide use.

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Paper provided by Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics in its series Staff Papers with number 121802.

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Date of creation: Mar 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ags:midasp:121802
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  1. Bart Minten & Lalaina Randrianarison & Johan F.M. Swinnen, 2006. "Global Retail Chains and Poor Farmers: Evidence from Madagascar," LICOS Discussion Papers 16406, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  2. Neven, David & Odera, Michael Makokha & Reardon, Thomas & Wang, Honglin, 2009. "Kenyan Supermarkets, Emerging Middle-Class Horticultural Farmers, and Employment Impacts on the Rural Poor," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1802-1811, November.
  3. Jikun Huang & Yunhua Wu & Scott Rozelle, 2009. "Moving off the farm and intensifying agricultural production in Shandong: a case study of rural labor market linkages in China," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(2), pages 203-218, 03.
  4. Michael Burton & Dan Rigby & Trevor Young, 2003. "Modelling the adoption of organic horticultural technology in the UK using Duration Analysis," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 47(1), pages 29-54, 03.
  5. Reardon, Thomas & Barrett, Christopher B. & Berdegué, Julio A. & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Agrifood Industry Transformation and Small Farmers in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1717-1727, November.
  6. Carletto, Calogero & de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 1999. "Sustainability in the Diffusion of Innovations: Smallholder Nontraditional Agro-Exports in Guatemala," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(2), pages 345-69, January.
  7. Carletto, Calogero & Kirk, Angeli & Winters, Paul & Davis, Benjamin, 2008. "Globalization and Smallholders: The Adoption, Diffusion, and Welfare Impact of Non-traditional Export Crops in Guatemala," Working Paper Series RP2008/18, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  8. Ricardo Hernández & Thomas Reardon & Julio Berdegué, 2007. "Supermarkets, wholesalers, and tomato growers in Guatemala," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 36(3), pages 281-290, 05.
  9. von Braun, Joachim & Hotchkiss, David & Immink, Maarten D. C., 1989. "Nontraditional export crops in Guatemala: effects on production, consumption, and nutrition," Research reports 73, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  10. Jose Blandon & Spencer Henson & John Cranfield, 2009. "Small-scale farmer participation in new agri-food supply chains: Case of the supermarket supply chain for fruit and vegetables in Honduras," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(7), pages 971-984.
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  12. Leggesse Dadi & Michael Burton & Adam Ozanne, 2004. "Duration Analysis of Technological Adoption in Ethiopian Agriculture," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(3), pages 613-631.
  13. Besley, Timothy & Case, Anne, 1993. "Modeling Technology Adoption in Developing Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 396-402, May.
  14. J. Edward Taylor & Antonio Yunez-Naude, 2000. "The Returns from Schooling in a Diversified Rural Economy," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 82(2), pages 287-297.
  15. Bellemare, Marc F. & Barrett, Christopher B., 2005. "An Ordered Tobit Model of Market Participation: Evidence from Kenya and Ethiopia," Working Papers 14748, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
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