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Non-Traditional Exports, Traditional Constraints: The Adoption and Diffusion of Cash Crops among Smallholders in Guatemala

Author

Listed:
  • Carletto, Calogero
  • Kirk, Angeli
  • Winters, Paul C.
  • Davis, Benjamin

Abstract

More than two decades after non-traditional export crops (NTXs) were introduced to the central highlands of Guatemala to link farmers to global markets and foster rural development, this study uses duration analysis to explore how time-varying household characteristics and external trends play into both the adoption and diffusion processes of NTX among smallholders. Adoption was widespread and rapid, which led the project to be hailed as a pro-poor success, reaching all but the smallest landholders. Potential benefits of NTXs have proven to be high, but constraints to sustained adoption also numerous, particularly in the second decade of the period considered. Over time, more than two-thirds of adopters eventually dropped out, reverting back to more traditional crops, or leaving agriculture altogether. Based on a second round of a 20-year panel survey carried out by the authors, the analysis suggests that smallholders are quite responsive to price incentives when making their repeated decision to continue adopting overtime. Also, in line with previous findings, land size does not seem important in the decision to adopt. However, land quality emerges as a significant factor in prolonging NTX production over time. Overall, the findings suggest that, in the long-run, NTX production does not appear to have been as pro-poor as initially hoped, and that institutions and policy interventions were able to only partially offset these difficulties in favor of less endowed farmers.

Suggested Citation

  • Carletto, Calogero & Kirk, Angeli & Winters, Paul C. & Davis, Benjamin, 2007. "Non-Traditional Exports, Traditional Constraints: The Adoption and Diffusion of Cash Crops among Smallholders in Guatemala," 81st Annual Conference, April 2-4, 2007, Reading University, UK 7962, Agricultural Economics Society.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aes007:7962
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Carletto, Calogero & de Janvry, Alain & Sadoulet, Elisabeth, 1999. "Sustainability in the Diffusion of Innovations: Smallholder Nontraditional Agro-Exports in Guatemala," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(2), pages 345-369, January.
    2. Asfaw, Abay & Admassie, Assefa, 2004. "The role of education on the adoption of chemical fertiliser under different socioeconomic environments in Ethiopia," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 30(3), pages 215-228, May.
    3. Calogero Carletto, 2000. "Nontraditional crops and land accumulation among Guatemalan smallholders," FCND briefs 80, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Winters, Paul & Crissman, Charles C. & Espinosa, Patricio, 2004. "Inducing the adoption of conservation technologies: lessons from the Ecuadorian Andes," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(05), pages 695-719, October.
    5. Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Zilberman, David, 1985. "Adoption of Agricultural Innovations in Developing Countries: A Survey," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 255-298, January.
    6. Michael R. Rahm & Wallace E. Huffman, 1984. "The Adoption of Reduced Tillage: The Role of Human Capital and Other Variables," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 66(4), pages 405-413.
    7. Kebede, Yohannes & Gunjal, Kisan & Coffin, Garth, 1990. "Adoption of new technologies in Ethiopian agriculture: The case of Tegulet-Bulga district Shoa province," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 4(1), pages 27-43, April.
    8. von Braun, Joachim & Hotchkiss, David & Immink, Maarten D. C., 1989. "Nontraditional export crops in Guatemala: effects on production, consumption, and nutrition," Research reports 73, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    9. Leggesse Dadi & Michael Burton & Adam Ozanne, 2004. "Duration Analysis of Technological Adoption in Ethiopian Agriculture," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(3), pages 613-631.
    10. repec:ags:agreko:269416 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Kebede, Yohannes & Gunjal, Kisan & Coffin, Garth, 1990. "Adoption of New Technologies in Ethiopian Agriculture: The Case of Tegulet-Bulga District, Shoa Province," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 4(1), April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kasirye, Ibrahim, 2013. "Constraints to Agricultural Technology Adoption in Uganda: Evidence from the 2005/06-2009/10 Uganda National Panel Survey," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-18, August.
    2. Christin Schipmann & Matin Qaim, 2010. "Spillovers from modern supply chains to traditional markets: product innovation and adoption by smallholders," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 41(3-4), pages 361-371, May.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Crop Production/Industries; International Relations/Trade;

    JEL classification:

    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • Q13 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products

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