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Targeting Long-term Rates in a Model with Financial Frictions and Regime Switching

In: Monetary Policy and Financial Stability in Latin America and the Caribbean


  • Alberto Ortiz-Bolaños

    () (Center for Latin American Monetary Studies)

  • Sebastián Cadavid-Sánchez

    () (Center for Latin American Monetary Studies)

  • Gerardo Kattan-Rodríguez

    () (Center for Latin American Monetary Studies)


Decreases (increases) in long-term interest rates caused by compressions (dilations) of term premiums could be financially expansive (contractive) and might require monetary policy restraints (stimulus). This paper uses measures of the term premium calculated by Adrian et al. (2013) to perform Bayesian estimations of a Markov-switching vector autoregression (MS-VAR) model as Hubrich and Tetlow (2015), finding evidence of the importance of allowing for switching parameters (nonlinearities) and switching variance (non-Gaussian) when analyzing macrofinancial linkages in the United States. Using the specification with the best fit to the data of two Markov states for parameters and three Markov states for variances, we estimate a Markov-switching dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (MS-DSGE) macroeconomic model with financial frictions in long-term debt instruments developed by Carlstrom et al. (2017) to provide evidence on how financial conditions have evolved in the us since 1962 and how the Federal Reserve Bank has responded to the evolution of term premiums. Using the estimated model, we perform a counterfactual analysis of the potential evolution of macroeconomic and financial variables under alternative financial conditions and monetary policy responses. We analyze six episodes with the presence of high financial frictions and/or medium and high shocks volatility. In three of them there was a high monetary policy response to financial factors: 1978Q4-1983Q4 which helped to mitigate inflation at the cost of economic activity, and the 1990Q2-1993Q4 and 2010Q1-2011Q4 episodes in which the high response served to mitigate economic contractions. Meanwhile, in the three episodes where low response to financial factors is observed, if the monetary authority had responded more aggressively, from 1971Q1-1978Q3 it could have attained lower inflation at the cost of lower GDP, from 2000Q4-2004Q4 it could have delayed the GDP contraction to 2002Q3, but this would have been deeper and inflation larger, and in 2006Q1-2009Q4 it might have precipitated the GDP contraction. The presence of high financial frictions and high shock volatility makes recessions deeper and recoveries more sluggish showing the importance of the financial-macroeconomic nexus.

Suggested Citation

  • Alberto Ortiz-Bolaños & Sebastián Cadavid-Sánchez & Gerardo Kattan-Rodríguez, 2018. "Targeting Long-term Rates in a Model with Financial Frictions and Regime Switching," Investigación Conjunta-Joint Research, in: Alberto Ortiz-Bolaños (ed.),Monetary Policy and Financial Stability in Latin America and the Caribbean, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 6, pages 159-219, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA.
  • Handle: RePEc:cml:incocp:5en-6
    Note: Joint Research Program XIX Meeting of the Central Bank Researchers Network

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Foerster, Andrew & Rubio-Ramírez, Juan Francisco & Waggoner, Daniel F & Zha, Tao, 2013. "Perturbation Methods for Markov-Switching DSGE Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 9464, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Hilde C. Bjørnland & Vegard H. Larsen & Junior Maih, 2018. "Oil and Macroeconomic (In)stability," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 10(4), pages 128-151, October.
    3. Charles W. Calomiris & Stephen H. Haber, 2015. "Fragile by Design: The Political Origins of Banking Crises and Scarce Credit," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 10177-2.
    4. Andrew Foerster & Juan F. Rubio‐Ramírez & Daniel F. Waggoner & Tao Zha, 2016. "Perturbation methods for Markov‐switching dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 7(2), pages 637-669, July.
    5. Ragna Alstadheim & Hilde C. Bjørnland & Junior Maih, 2013. "Do central banks respond to exchange rate movements? A Markov-switching structural investigation," Working Paper 2013/24, Norges Bank.
    6. Andrew T. Foerster, 2016. "Monetary Policy Regime Switches And Macroeconomic Dynamics," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 57, pages 211-230, February.
    7. Jean Barthélemy & Magali Marx, 2011. "State-Dependent Probability Distributions in Non Linear Rational Expectations Models," Sciences Po publications 347, Sciences Po.
    8. Junior Maih, 2014. "Efficient Perturbation Methods for Solving Regime-Switching DSGE Models," Working Papers No 10/2014, Centre for Applied Macro- and Petroleum economics (CAMP), BI Norwegian Business School.
    9. Hamilton, James D, 1989. "A New Approach to the Economic Analysis of Nonstationary Time Series and the Business Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(2), pages 357-384, March.
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    More about this item


    monetary policy; term-structure; financial frictions; Markov switching VAR; Markov-switching DSGE; Bayesian maximum likelihood methods.;

    JEL classification:

    • E12 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Keynes; Keynesian; Post-Keynesian; Modern Monetary Theory
    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • C11 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Bayesian Analysis: General


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