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Wilko Bolt

Personal Details

First Name:Wilko
Middle Name:
Last Name:Bolt
RePEc Short-ID:pbo141
Terminal Degree:1997 Faculteit Economie en Bedrijfskunde; Universiteit van Amsterdam (from RePEc Genealogy)


de Nederlandsche Bank

Amsterdam, Netherlands
RePEc:edi:dnbgvnl (more details at EDIRC)

Research output

Jump to: Working papers Articles Chapters

Working papers

  1. Wilko Bolt & Vera Lubbersen & Peter Wierts, 2022. "Getting the balance right: Crypto, stablecoin and CBDC," Working Papers 736, DNB.
  2. Nicole Jonker & Carin van der Cruijsen & Michiel Bijlsma & Wilko Bolt, 2020. "Pandemic payment patterns," Working Papers 701, DNB.
  3. van Wijnbergen, Sweder & Bolt, Wilko & Mavromatis, Kostas, 2019. "The Global Macroeconomics of a Trade War: The EAGLE model on the US-China trade conflict," CEPR Discussion Papers 13495, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Wilko Bolt & Maarten van Oordt, 2016. "On the Value of Virtual Currencies," Staff Working Papers 16-42, Bank of Canada.
  5. Wilko Bolt & Maria Demertzis & Cees Diks & Cars Hommes & Marco van der Leij, 2014. "Identifying Booms and Busts in House Prices under Heterogeneous Expectations," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 14-157/II, Tinbergen Institute.
  6. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2013. "Competition in bank-provided payment services," Working Paper Series 1539, European Central Bank.
  7. Bolt, W. & Demertzis, D. & Diks, C.G.H. & Van der Leij, M.J., 2011. "Complex Methods in Economics: An Example of Behavioral Heterogeneity in House Prices," CeNDEF Working Papers 11-12, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance.
  8. Schmiedel, Heiko & Bolt, Wilko & Foote, Elizabeth, 2011. "Consumer credit and payment cards," Working Paper Series 1387, European Central Bank.
  9. Bolt, Wilko & Schmiedel, Heiko, 2009. "SEPA, efficiency, and payment card competition," Working Paper Series 1140, European Central Bank.
  10. Christine Beijnen & Wilko Bolt, 2008. "Size Matters: Economies of Scale in European Payment Processing," FIW Working Paper series 013, FIW.
  11. Wilko Bolt & Sujit Chakravorti, 2008. "Consumer choice and merchant acceptance of payment media," Working Paper Series WP-08-11, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  12. Wilko Bolt & David B. Humphrey, 2007. "Payment network scale economies, SEPA, and cash replacement," Working Papers 07-32, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  13. Wilko Bolt & Alexander F. Tieman, 2006. "On Myopic Equilibria in Dynamic Games with Endogenous Discounting," IMF Working Papers 2006/302, International Monetary Fund.
  14. Wilko Bolt & David B. Humphrey & Roland Uittenbogaard, 2005. "The effect of transaction pricing on the adoption of electronic payments: a cross-country comparison," Working Papers 05-28, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
  15. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2005. "Public good issues in TARGET: natural monopoly, scale economies, network effects and cost allocation," Working Paper Series 505, European Central Bank.
  16. Wilko Bolt & Alexander F. Tieman, 2005. "Social Welfare and Cost Recovery in Two-Sided Markets," IMF Working Papers 2005/194, International Monetary Fund.
  17. Wilko Bolt & Alexander F Tieman, 2005. "Skewed Pricing in Two-Sided Markets: An IO approach," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2005 75, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  18. Alexander F. Tieman & Wilko Bolt, 2004. "Banking Competition, Risk, and Regulation," IMF Working Papers 2004/011, International Monetary Fund.
  19. Alexander F. Tieman & Wilko Bolt, 2003. "Pricing Debit Card Payment Services: An IO Approach," IMF Working Papers 2003/202, International Monetary Fund.
  20. Bolt, Wilko & Peeters, Marga, 1998. "Corporate governance in the Netherlands," MPRA Paper 28694, University Library of Munich, Germany.


  1. Bolt, Wilko & Lubbersen, Vera & Wierts, Peter, 2022. "Getting the balance right: Crypto, stablecoin and central bank digital currency," Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems, Henry Stewart Publications, vol. 16(1), pages 39-50, March.
  2. Jonker, Nicole & van der Cruijsen, Carin & Bijlsma, Michiel & Bolt, Wilko, 2022. "Pandemic payment patterns," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 143(C).
  3. Wilko Bolt & Maarten R.C. Van Oordt, 2020. "On the Value of Virtual Currencies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 52(4), pages 835-862, June.
  4. Bolt, Wilko & Demertzis, Maria & Diks, Cees & Hommes, Cars & Leij, Marco van der, 2019. "Identifying booms and busts in house prices under heterogeneous expectations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 234-259.
  5. Wilko Bolt & Loretta J. Mester, 2017. "Introduction to Retail Payments: Mapping Out the Road Ahead," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 1-3, October.
  6. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2015. "Assessing bank competition for consumer loans," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 127-141.
  7. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2015. "A frontier measure of U.S. banking competition," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 246(2), pages 450-461.
  8. Wilko Bolt & Heiko Schmiedel, 2013. "Pricing of payment cards, competition, and efficiency: a possible guide for SEPA," Annals of Finance, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 5-25, February.
  9. Bolt, Wilko & de Haan, Leo & Hoeberichts, Marco & van Oordt, Maarten R.C. & Swank, Job, 2012. "Bank profitability during recessions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 2552-2564.
  10. Bolt, Wilko & Jonker, Nicole & van Renselaar, Corry, 2010. "Incentives at the counter: An empirical analysis of surcharging card payments and payment behaviour in the Netherlands," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1738-1744, August.
  11. Wilko Bolt & Santiago Carbó-Valverde & Sujit Chakravorti & Sergio Gorjon & Francisco Rodríguez-Fernández, 2010. "What is the role of public authorities in retail payment systems?," Chicago Fed Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Nov.
  12. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2010. "Bank competition efficiency in Europe: A frontier approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1808-1817, August.
  13. Beijnen, Christine & Bolt, Wilko, 2009. "Size matters: Economies of scale in European payments processing," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 203-210, February.
  14. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2009. "Payment scale economies from individual bank data," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 105(3), pages 293-295, December.
  15. Wilko Bolt & Sujit Chakravorti, 2008. "Economics of payment cards: a status report," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, vol. 32(Q IV), pages 15-27.
  16. Bolt, Wilko & Humphrey, David, 2008. "Reducing payment processing costs: Scale economies and SEPA," Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems, Henry Stewart Publications, vol. 2(3), pages 250-258, April.
  17. Bolt, Wilko & Tieman, Alexander F., 2008. "Heavily skewed pricing in two-sided markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 1250-1255, September.
  18. Wilko Bolt & David Humphrey & Roland Uittenbogaard, 2008. "Transaction Pricing and the Adoption of Electronic Payments: A Cross-Country Comparison," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 4(1), pages 89-123, March.
  19. Bolt Wilko & Humphrey David, 2007. "Payment Network Scale Economies, SEPA, and Cash Replacement," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(4), pages 1-21, December.
  20. Wilko Bolt, 2006. "Retail Payments in the Netherlands: Facts and Theory," De Economist, Springer, vol. 154(3), pages 345-372, September.
  21. Wilko Bolt, 2006. "Book Review: Jean-Jacques Laffont, Regulation and Development, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005, 268 p. GBP 17.99, USD 29.99 (ISBN 0 521 54948 PB) GBP 40, USD 75 (ISBN 0 521 84018 X HB)," De Economist, Springer, vol. 154(2), pages 317-318, June.
  22. Bolt Wilko & Tieman Alexander F., 2006. "Social Welfare and Cost Recovery in Two-Sided Markets," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-15, March.
  23. Wilko Bolt, 2005. "Book Review: Paul Milgrom, Putting Auction Theory to Work, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004, 392 p. GBP 35 (ISBN 0 521536723)," De Economist, Springer, vol. 153(2), pages 231-232, June.
  24. Wilko Bolt & Alexander F. Tieman, 2004. "Banking Competition, Risk and Regulation," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 106(4), pages 783-804, December.
  25. Houba, Harold & Bolt, Wilko, 2000. "Holdouts, backdating and wage negotiations," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(9), pages 1783-1800, October.
  26. Harold Houba & Wilko Bolt, 1997. "Strategic bargaining in the variable threat game," Economic Theory, Springer;Society for the Advancement of Economic Theory (SAET), vol. 11(1), pages 57-77.
  27. Bolt, Wilko, 1995. "Striking for a Bargain between Two Completely Informed Agents: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(5), pages 1344-1347, December.


  1. Wilko Bolt & David Humphrey, 2017. "Competition and price conduct by bank service line," Chapters, in: Jacob A. Bikker & Laura Spierdijk (ed.), Handbook of Competition in Banking and Finance, chapter 16, pages 340-364, Edward Elgar Publishing.

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Co-authorship network on CollEc

NEP Fields

NEP is an announcement service for new working papers, with a weekly report in each of many fields. This author has had 14 papers announced in NEP. These are the fields, ordered by number of announcements, along with their dates. If the author is listed in the directory of specialists for this field, a link is also provided.
  1. NEP-BAN: Banking (4) 2010-01-30 2011-11-14 2013-05-19 2013-08-23
  2. NEP-COM: Industrial Competition (4) 2006-03-05 2010-01-30 2013-05-19 2013-08-23
  3. NEP-MAC: Macroeconomics (4) 2016-09-11 2019-02-25 2019-04-22 2021-01-18
  4. NEP-EEC: European Economics (3) 2008-01-05 2010-01-30 2019-04-22
  5. NEP-PAY: Payment Systems & Financial Technology (3) 2016-09-11 2021-01-18 2022-10-17
  6. NEP-URE: Urban & Real Estate Economics (3) 2012-04-17 2015-02-16 2015-04-25
  7. NEP-MON: Monetary Economics (2) 2016-09-11 2022-10-17
  8. NEP-NET: Network Economics (2) 2008-01-05 2010-01-30
  9. NEP-CBA: Central Banking (1) 2022-10-17
  10. NEP-EFF: Efficiency & Productivity (1) 2013-08-23
  11. NEP-EUR: Microeconomic European Issues (1) 2021-01-18
  12. NEP-INT: International Trade (1) 2019-02-25
  13. NEP-MIC: Microeconomics (1) 2006-03-05
  14. NEP-MKT: Marketing (1) 2010-01-30
  15. NEP-OPM: Open Economy Macroeconomics (1) 2019-04-22


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