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Transaction Pricing and the Adoption of Electronic Payments: A Cross-Country Comparison

  • Wilko Bolt

    (De Nederlandsche Bank)

  • David Humphrey

    (Florida State University)

  • Roland Uittenbogaard

    (De Nederlandsche Bank)

After safety, the efficiency of a nation's payment system is a primary concern of central banks. Since electronic payments are typically cheaper than paper-based or cash payments, pricing these transactions should speed up the shift to electronics. But by how much? Norway explicitly priced point-of-sale and bill-payment transactions and rapidly shifted to electronic payments, while the Netherlands experienced a similar shift without pricing. Controlling for terminal availability and differences between countries, direct pricing accelerated the shift to electronics by about 20 percent. The quid pro quo was the elimination of bank-float revenues.

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Article provided by International Journal of Central Banking in its journal International Journal of Central Banking.

Volume (Year): 4 (2008)
Issue (Month): 1 (March)
Pages: 89-123

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Handle: RePEc:ijc:ijcjou:y:2008:q:1:a:3
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  1. Wilko Bolt & Alexander F. Tieman, 2004. "Skewed Pricing in Two-Sided Markets: An IO approach," DNB Working Papers 013, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  2. Rochet, Jean-Charles & Tirole, Jean, 2003. "Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets," IDEI Working Papers 152, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  3. Christopher R. Knittel & Victor Stango, 2004. "Incompatibility, Product Attributes and Consumer Welfare: Evidence from ATMs," Working Papers 04-06, NET Institute, revised Oct 2004.
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  7. Humphrey, David & Kaloudis, Aris & Owre, Grete, 2004. "The future of cash: falling legal use and implications for government policy," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 221-233, July.
  8. Hannan, Timothy H., 2007. "ATM surcharge bans and bank market structure: The case of Iowa and its neighbors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 1061-1082, April.
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  10. Borzekowski, Ron & Kiser, Elizabeth K., 2008. "The choice at the checkout: Quantifying demand across payment instruments," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 889-902, July.
  11. Wilko Bolt & David Humphrey & Roland Uittenbogaard, 2005. "The Effect of Transaction Pricing on the Adoption of Electronic Payments: A Cross-Country Comparison," DNB Working Papers 071, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  12. David B. Humphrey & Moshe Kim & Bent Vale, 1998. "Realizing the gains from electronic payments: costs, pricing, and payment choice," Proceedings 586, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  13. Hans Brits & Carlo Winder, 2005. "Payments are no free lunch," DNB Occasional Studies 302, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  14. Duca, John V. & VanHoose, David D., 2004. "Recent developments in understanding the demand for money," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 247-272.
  15. Nicole Jonker, 2007. "Payment Instruments as Perceived by Consumers – Results from a Household Survey," De Economist, Springer, vol. 155(3), pages 271-303, September.
  16. James G. MacKinnon, 1995. "Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," Working Papers 918, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
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