IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ecb/ecbwps/20091144.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Choosing and using payment instruments: evidence from German microdata

Author

Listed:
  • Von Kalckreuth, Ulf
  • Schmidt, Tobias
  • Stix, Helmut

Abstract

Germans are still very fond of using cash. Of all direct payment transactions, cash accounts for an astounding 82% in terms of number, and for 58% in terms of value. With a new and unique dataset that combines transaction information with survey data on payment behaviour of German consumers, we shed light on how individuals choose payment instruments and why cash remains so important. We propose a two-stage empirical framework which jointly explains credit card ownership and the use of cash. Our results indicate that the pattern of cash usage is compatible with systematic economic decision making. Consumers decide upon the adoption of payment cards and then use available payment media according to their transaction and personal characteristics, the relative costs of cash and card usage, and their assessment of payment instruments JEL Classification: E41, E58, D12

Suggested Citation

  • Von Kalckreuth, Ulf & Schmidt, Tobias & Stix, Helmut, 2009. "Choosing and using payment instruments: evidence from German microdata," Working Paper Series 1144, European Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20091144
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp1144.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Klee, Elizabeth, 2008. "How people pay: Evidence from grocery store data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 526-541, April.
    2. Mathias Drehmann & Charles Goodhart & Malte Krueger, 2002. "The challenges facing currency usage: will the traditional transaction medium be able to resist competition from the new technologies?," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 17(34), pages 193-228, April.
    3. Zinman, Jonathan, 2009. "Debit or credit?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 358-366, February.
    4. Soman, Dilip, 2001. " Effects of Payment Mechanism on Spending Behavior: The Role of Rehearsal and Immediacy of Payments," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 27(4), pages 460-474, March.
    5. Hayashi Fumiko & Klee Elizabeth, 2003. "Technology Adoption and Consumer Payments: Evidence from Survey Data," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 2(2), pages 1-16, June.
    6. Orazio P. Attanasio & Luigi Guiso & Tullio Jappelli, 2002. "The Demand for Money, Financial Innovation, and the Welfare Cost of Inflation: An Analysis with Household Data," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 110(2), pages 317-351, April.
    7. Lippi, Francesco & Secchi, Alessandro, 2009. "Technological change and the households' demand for currency," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 222-230, March.
    8. Helmut Stix, 2004. "How Do Debit Cards Affect Cash Demand? Survey Data Evidence," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 93-115, June.
    9. Marc Rysman, 2006. "An Empirical Analysis of Payment Card Usage," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series WP2006-002, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    10. Arango, Carlos & Huynh, Kim P. & Sabetti, Leonard, 2011. "How do you pay? The role of incentives at the point-of-sale," Working Paper Series 1386, European Central Bank.
    11. Fernando Alvarez & Francesco Lippi, 2009. "Financial Innovation and the Transactions Demand for Cash," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(2), pages 363-402, March.
    12. Schuh, Scott & Stavins, Joanna, 2010. "Why are (some) consumers (finally) writing fewer checks? The role of payment characteristics," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1745-1758, August.
    13. Whitesell, William C, 1992. "Deposit Banks and the Market for Payment Media," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 24(4), pages 483-498, November.
    14. Hyytinen, Ari & Takalo, Tuomas, 2004. "Multihoming in the market for payment media : evidence from young Finnish consumers," Research Discussion Papers 25/2004, Bank of Finland.
    15. Santomero, Anthony M & Seater, John J, 1996. "Alternative Monies and the Demand for Media of Exchange," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 942-960, November.
    16. Ron Borzekowski & K. Kiser Elizabeth & Ahmed Shaista, 2008. "Consumers' Use of Debit Cards: Patterns, Preferences, and Price Response," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(1), pages 149-172, February.
    17. Humphrey, David B & Kim, Moshe & Vale, Bent, 2001. "Realizing the Gains from Electronic Payments: Costs, Pricing, and Payment Choice," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(2), pages 216-234, May.
    18. Hans Brits & Carlo Winder, 2005. "Payments are no free lunch," DNB Occasional Studies 302, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    19. Brian Mantel, 2000. "Why do consumers pay bills electronically? an empirical analysis," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q IV, pages 32-48.
    20. Sheri M. Markose & Yiing Jia Loke, 2003. "Network Effects On Cash-Card Substitution In Transactions And Low Interest Rate Regimes," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(487), pages 456-476, April.
    21. Penz, Elfriede & Meier-Pesti, Katja & Kirchler, Erich, 2004. ""It's practical, but no more controllable": Social representations of the electronic purse in Austria," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 25(6), pages 771-787, December.
    22. Borzekowski, Ron & Kiser, Elizabeth K., 2008. "The choice at the checkout: Quantifying demand across payment instruments," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 889-902, July.
    23. Stock, James H & Wright, Jonathan H & Yogo, Motohiro, 2002. "A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(4), pages 518-529, October.
    24. Peter Mooslechner & Helmut Stix & Karin Wagner, 2006. "How Are Payments Made in Austria?," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 2, pages 111-134.
    25. Shy, Oz & Tarkka, Juha, 2002. "The Market for Electronic Cash Cards," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(2), pages 299-314, May.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    cash substitution; cash usage; credit cards; debit cards; payment behaviour; payment cards; payment innovation; payment instruments; survey data;

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20091144. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Official Publications). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/emieude.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.