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Using cash to monitor liquidity: Implications for payments, currency demand and withdrawal behavior

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  • von Kalckreuth, Ulf
  • Schmidt, Tobias
  • Stix, Helmut

Abstract

Standard transaction cost arguments can only partially explain why the share of cash transactions is still high in many countries. This paper shows that consumers' desire to monitor liquidity is one of the reasons. Consumers make use of a distinctive feature of cash - a glance into one's pocket provides a signal for both the remaining budget as well as the level of past expenses. We propose a theoretical framework which incorporates this feature of cash, and derives implications not only for cash usage as such but also for a broader set of paymentrelated activities. Survey data from Germany on consumers' payment and withdrawal patterns are used to test these implications empirically. The data are consistent with all theoretical predictions: consumers who need to keep control over their remaining liquidity and who have elevated costs of information processing and storage will conduct a larger percentage of their payments using cash, hold fewer non-cash payment instruments, withdraw less often and hold larger cash balances than other consumers. Such consumers also use payment cards for some transactions; they switch to non-cash payment instruments only at higher transaction values than other consumers, however. Our model provides an explanation of why cash usage has declined only slowly in some countries despite broad diffusion of non-cash means of payment.

Suggested Citation

  • von Kalckreuth, Ulf & Schmidt, Tobias & Stix, Helmut, 2011. "Using cash to monitor liquidity: Implications for payments, currency demand and withdrawal behavior," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2011,22, Deutsche Bundesbank.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:bubdp1:201122
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Carlos Arango & Yassine Bouhdaoui & David Bounie & Martina Eschelbach & Lola Hernández, 2013. "Cash Management and Payment Choices: A Simulation Model with International Comparisons," Staff Working Papers 13-53, Bank of Canada.
    2. John Bagnall & David Bounie & Kim P. Huynh & Anneke Kosse & Tobias Schmidt & Scott Schuh, 2016. "Consumer Cash Usage: A Cross-Country Comparison with Payment Diary Survey Data," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 12(4), pages 1-61, December.
    3. repec:bla:jconsa:v:51:y:2017:i:1:p:91-112 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Arango, Carlos & Huynh, Kim P. & Sabetti, Leonard, 2011. "How do you pay? The role of incentives at the point-of-sale," Working Paper Series 1386, European Central Bank.
    5. repec:bdi:opques:qef_144_01 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Guerino Ardizzi & Eleonora Iachini, 2013. "Why are payment habits so heterogeneous across and within countries? Evidence from European countries and Italian regions," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 144, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    7. Klaus Forstner & Karin Wagner, 2014. "How Gender-Specific Are Payments? A Study Based on Austrian Survey Data from 1996 to 2011," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 3, pages 36-53.
    8. Tobias Trütsch, 2016. "The impact of mobile payment on payment choice," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 30(3), pages 299-336, August.
    9. Heng Chen & Kim Huynh & Oz Shy, 2017. "Cash Versus Card: Payment Discontinuities and the Burden of Holding Coins," Staff Working Papers 17-47, Bank of Canada.
    10. Ben Fung & Hanna Halaburda, 2016. "Central Bank Digital Currencies: A Framework for Assessing Why and How," Discussion Papers 16-22, Bank of Canada.
    11. repec:taf:applec:v:49:y:2017:i:30:p:2989-3004 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Lola Hernandez & Nicole Jonker & Anneke Kosse, 2014. "Cash versus debit card: the role of budget control," DNB Working Papers 429, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    13. Huynh, Kim P. & Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp & Stix, Helmut, 2014. "Whenever and Wherever: The Role of Card Acceptance in the Transaction Demand for Money," Discussion Paper Series of SFB/TR 15 Governance and the Efficiency of Economic Systems 472, Free University of Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin, University of Bonn, University of Mannheim, University of Munich.
    14. Huynh, Kim P. & Schmidt-Dengler, Philipp & Stix, Helmut, 2014. "The Role of Card Acceptance in the Transaction Demand for Money," CEPR Discussion Papers 10183, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    15. Eschelbach, Martina & Schmidt, Tobias, 2013. "Precautionary motives in short-term cash management: Evidence from German POS transactions," Discussion Papers 38/2013, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    16. Clemens Jobst & Helmut Stix, 2016. "Florin, crown, schilling and euro: an overview of 200 years of cash in Austria," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 3, pages 94-119.
    17. Magnac, Thierry, 2017. "ATM foreign fees and cash withdrawals," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 117-129.
    18. Kosse, A., 2014. "Consumer payment choices : Room for further digisation?," Other publications TiSEM 7486cb21-13a2-4609-bad6-e, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    19. David, Bounie & Abel, François & Patrick, Waelbroeck, 2016. "Debit card and demand for cash," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 55-66.
    20. Peter Mooslechner & Helmut Stix & Karin Wagner, 2012. "The Use of Payment Instruments in Austria - A Study Based on Survey Data from 1996 to 2011," Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 4, pages 53-77.
    21. Carin van der Cruijsen & Mirjam Plooij, 2015. "Changing payment patterns at point-of-sale: their drivers," DNB Working Papers 471, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    22. Carin van der Cruijsen & Lola Hernandez & Nicole Jonker, 2017. "In love with the debit card but still married to cash," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(30), pages 2989-3004, June.
    23. Carlos Arango & Dylan Hogg & Alyssa Lee, 2012. "Why Is Cash (Still) So Entrenched? Insights from the Bank of Canada’s 2009 Methods-of-Payment Survey," Discussion Papers 12-2, Bank of Canada.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    payment behavior; payment instruments; withdrawal behavior; payment cards; payment innovation; cash usage; currency demand; survey data;

    JEL classification:

    • E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis

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