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Product innovation and network survival in the U.S. ATM and debit card network industry

  • Fumiko Hayashi
  • Zhu Wang

This paper studies product innovation and firm survival in the U.S. ATM/debit card industry. The industry started with a few shared ATM networks in the early 1970s. The number of networks grew quickly up until the mid 1980s, but then declined sharply. We construct a theoretical model based on Jovanovic and MacDonald (1994). In contrast to their model focusing on cost-saving technological innovation, our model shows a major product innovation may also trigger the shakeout. The theoretical predictions are tested using a novel dataset on network entry, exit, size, location, ownership and product choices. The findings suggest introducing the point of sale debit function in the mid 1980s played an important role driving the network consolidation. Unlike previous studies, we find little advantage of being early industry entrants. Rather, due to network effects in the industry, large networks had better chance to adopt the product innovation and survive the shakeout. ; Original title: Product innovation and firm survival in a network industry ; Also issued as a Payments System Research Working Paper

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Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City in its series Research Working Paper with number RWP 08-14.

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Date of creation: 2009
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedkrw:rwp08-14
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  1. Jovanovic, Boyan & MacDonald, Glenn M, 1994. "The Life Cycle of a Competitive Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 102(2), pages 322-47, April.
  2. repec:rje:randje:v:37:y:2006:3:p:692-719 is not listed on IDEAS
  3. Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Triole, 2002. "Platform competition in two sided markets," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 24929, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  4. Nadia Massoud & Dan Bernhardt, 2002. ""Rip-Off" ATM Surcharges," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 33(1), pages 96-115, Spring.
  5. Knittel, Christopher R. & Stango, Victor, 2005. "Incompatibility, Product Attributes and Consumer Welfare: Evidence from ATMs," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt3d42z9rh, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  6. Timothy H. Hannan & Elizabeth K. Kiser & Robin A. Prager & James J. McAndrews, 2001. "To surcharge or not to surcharge: an empirical investigation of ATM pricing," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-38, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Mcandrews James J., 2003. "Automated Teller Machine Network Pricing - A Review of the Literature," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 2(2), pages 1-13, June.
  8. Klepper, Steven, 1996. "Entry, Exit, Growth, and Innovation over the Product Life Cycle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 562-83, June.
  9. Hannan, Timothy H., 2007. "ATM surcharge bans and bank market structure: The case of Iowa and its neighbors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 1061-1082, April.
  10. Jean Tirole & Jean-Charles Rochet, 2006. "Two-Sided Markets : A Progress Report," Post-Print hal-00173715, HAL.
  11. Gort, Michael & Klepper, Steven, 1982. "Time Paths in the Diffusion of Product Innovations," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(367), pages 630-53, September.
  12. Matutes, Carmen & Padilla, A. Jorge, 1994. "Shared ATM networks and banking competition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 1113-1138, May.
  13. Christopher R. Knittel & Victor Stango, 2009. "HOW DOES INCOMPATIBILITY AFFECT PRICES?: EVIDENCE FROM ATM'S -super-* ," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 57(3), pages 557-582, 09.
  14. Hannan, Timothy H & McDowell, John M, 1984. "Market Concentration and the Diffusion of New Technology in the Banking Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(4), pages 686-91, November.
  15. Steven Klepper & Elizabeth Graddy, 1990. "The Evolution of New Industries and the Determinants of Market Structure," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 27-44, Spring.
  16. Benjamin E. Hermalin & Michael L. Katz, 2006. "Your network or mine? The economics of routing rules," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 692-719, 09.
  17. Timothy H. Hannan & Ron Borzekowski, 2006. "Incompatibility and investment in ATM networks," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2006-36, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  18. Gautam Gowrisankaran & John Krainer, 2004. "The welfare consequences of ATM surcharges: evidence from a structural entry model," Working Paper Series 2005-01, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  19. Zhu Wang, 2007. "Technological Innovation and Market Turbulence: The Dot-com Experience," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 10(1), pages 78-105, January.
  20. Humphrey, David B & Kim, Moshe & Vale, Bent, 2001. "Realizing the Gains from Electronic Payments: Costs, Pricing, and Payment Choice," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(2), pages 216-34, May.
  21. James J. McAndrews, 1991. "The evolution of shared ATM networks," Business Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, issue May, pages 3-16.
  22. Fumiko Hayashi & Rick Sullivan & Stuart E. Weiner, 2006. "A guide to the ATM and debit card industry - 2006 update," Monograph, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, number 2006agttaadci2, July 7.
  23. Garth Saloner & Andrea Shepard, 1995. "Adoption of Technologies with Network Effects: An Empirical Examination of the Adoption of Teller Machines," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(3), pages 479-501, Autumn.
  24. Steven D. Felgran & R. Edward Ferguson, 1986. "The evolution of retail EFT networks," New England Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, issue Jul, pages 42-56.
  25. Zhu Wang, 2008. "Income Distribution, Market Size and the Evolution of Industry," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 11(3), pages 542-565, July.
  26. Steven Klepper & Kenneth L. Simons, 2000. "The Making of an Oligopoly: Firm Survival and Technological Change in the Evolution of the U.S. Tire Industry," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(4), pages 728-760, August.
  27. Jean-Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 2014. "Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets," CPI Journal, Competition Policy International, vol. 10.
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