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Incompatibility and Investment in ATM Networks


  • Hannan Timothy H.

    () (Federal Reserve Board)

  • Borzekowski Ron

    (Federal Reserve Board)


Incompatibility across rival systems can influence incentives to invest in product changes beneficial to the consumer. We investigate this phenomenon in the case of bank ATM networks, where the number of ATM locations is a measure of product quality and surcharge fees serve as an index of incompatibility. Using as a natural experiment the lifting of a surcharge ban in Iowa (and not in neighboring states), we find that the associated increase in incompatibility for Iowa banks caused a substantial increase in the number of ATM locations offered to customers. This effect is larger (in percentage terms) for larger banks.

Suggested Citation

  • Hannan Timothy H. & Borzekowski Ron, 2007. "Incompatibility and Investment in ATM Networks," Review of Network Economics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-15, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:bpj:rneart:v:6:y:2007:i:1:n:1

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Timothy H. Hannan & Elizabeth K. Kiser & Robin A. Prager & James J. McAndrews, 2003. "To Surcharge or Not to Surcharge: An Empirical Investigation of ATM Pricing," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 990-1002, November.
    2. Knittel Christopher R. & Stango Victor, 2008. "Incompatibility, Product Attributes and Consumer Welfare: Evidence from ATMs," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 1-42, January.
    3. Katz, Michael L & Shapiro, Carl, 1985. "Network Externalities, Competition, and Compatibility," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(3), pages 424-440, June.
    4. Gautam Gowrisankaran & John Krainer, 2004. "The Welfare Consequences of ATM Surcharges: Evidence from a Structural Entry Model," Working Papers 04-16, NET Institute, revised Nov 2004.
    5. Marianne Bertrand & Esther Duflo & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2004. "How Much Should We Trust Differences-In-Differences Estimates?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 249-275.
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    Cited by:

    1. María Fernanda Viecens, 2009. "Compatibility with Firm Dominance," Working Papers 2009-12, FEDEA.
    2. Donze, Jocelyn & Dubec, Isabelle, 2009. "La tarification des retraits aux distributeurs automatiques bancaires, une revue de la littérature
      [ATM withdrawal pricing, a survey of the literature]
      ," MPRA Paper 16546, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Hayashi, Fumiko & Wang, Zhu, 2008. "Product innovation and network survival in the U.S. ATM and debit card network industry," Research Working Paper RWP 08-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, revised 01 Jan 2011.

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