Pure Public Goods versus Commons: Benefit-Cost Duality
This paper utilizes benefit-cost duality to differentiate the problems associated with a pure public good from the problems associated with a commons. For the public good scenario, contributors’ benefits are public or available to all, while provision costs impact only the contributor. In a commons, crowding costs are public, while benefits affect only the user. Although both problems possess the same game form for their canonical representations, collective-action implications differ: for example, the relative positions of the Nash equilibrium and Pareto optimum, the form of the exploitation hypothesis, and the need for selective incentives or punishments.
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- Cornes, Richard & Hartley, Roger & Sandler, Todd, 1999.
"Equilibrium Existence and Uniqueness in Public Good Models: An Elementary Proof Via Contraction,"
Staff General Research Papers
1630, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
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- Keith Hartley & Todd Sandler, 2001. "Economics of Alliances: The Lessons for Collective Action," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 39(3), pages 869-896, September.
- Robert H. Haveman, 1973. "Common Property, Congestion, and Environmental Pollution," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(2), pages 278-287.
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