IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/taf/jpropr/v22y2005i4p309-323.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Diversification when It Hurts? The Joint Distributions of Real Estate and Equity Markets1

Author

Listed:
  • John Knight
  • Colin Lizieri
  • Stephen Satchell

Abstract

This article examines claims about the diversification benefits of real estate. In particular, does real estate investment in a mixed asset portfolio provide protection when other asset classes are performing badly? Conventional portfolio strategy models utilising covariance statistics may result in a misallocation of capital if correlation structures between assets differ across the distribution of returns. Models of asymmetric dependence using the copula function, drawn from the recent finance literature are used to examine the relationships between real estate and equity at different points in their joint return distributions. For both UK and Global markets, real estate securities and common equities are shown to exhibit strong tail dependence -- particularly in the negative tail. This suggests that real estate securities offer, at best, limited diversification protection when it is needed most -- when other asset markets are falling. This has implications for allocation strategies in mixed asset portfolios. 1. Paper originally presented to the European Real Estate Society Annual Conference, Dublin, June 2005.

Suggested Citation

  • John Knight & Colin Lizieri & Stephen Satchell, 2005. "Diversification when It Hurts? The Joint Distributions of Real Estate and Equity Markets1," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 309-323, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jpropr:v:22:y:2005:i:4:p:309-323
    DOI: 10.1080/09599910600558520
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1080/09599910600558520
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. P. Hartmann & S. Straetmans & C. G. de Vries, 2004. "Asset Market Linkages in Crisis Periods," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(1), pages 313-326, February.
    2. Brown, Gerald R & Matysiak, George A, 2000. "Sticky Valuations, Aggregation Effects, and Property Indices," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 49-66, January.
    3. Andrew Ang & Geert Bekaert, 2002. "International Asset Allocation With Regime Shifts," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1137-1187.
    4. Jeffrey Fisher & Dean Gatzlaff & David Geltner & Donald Haurin, 2003. "Controlling for the Impact of Variable Liquidity in Commercial Real Estate Price Indices," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(2), pages 269-303, June.
    5. Jim Clayton & David Geltner & Stanley W. Hamilton, 2001. "Smoothing in Commercial Property Valuations: Evidence from Individual Appraisals," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 29(3), pages 337-360, March.
    6. Liu, Crocker H. & Hartzell, David J. & Greig, Wylie & Grissom, Terry V., 1990. "The Integration of the Real Estate Market and the Stock Market: Some Preliminary Evidence," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 3(3), pages 261-282, September.
    7. Kee-Hong Bae & G. Andrew Karolyi & René M. Stulz, 2003. "A New Approach to Measuring Financial Contagion," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 16(3), pages 717-763, July.
    8. John Okunev & Patrick J. Wilson, 1997. "Using Nonlinear Tests to Examine Integration Between Real Estate and Stock Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 25(3), pages 487-503, September.
    9. Richard Barkham & David Geltner, 1995. "Price Discovery in American and British Property Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 23(1), pages 21-44, March.
    10. Pat McAllister & Andrew Baum & Neil Crosby & Paul Gallimore & Adelaide Gray, 2003. "Appraiser behaviour and appraisal smoothing: some qualitative and quantitative evidence," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 261-280, January.
    11. Foort Hamelink & Martin Hoesli, 2004. "Maximum drawdown and the allocation to real estate," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 5-29, January.
    12. David Geltner, 1993. "Temporal Aggregation in Real Estate Return Indices," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 21(2), pages 141-166, June.
    13. Joseph Gyourko & Donald B. Keim, 1992. "What Does the Stock Market Tell Us About Real Estate Returns?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 20(3), pages 457-485, September.
    14. Yuming Fu, 2003. "Estimating the Lagging Error in Real Estate Price Indices," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(1), pages 75-98, March.
    15. Conlin Lizieri & Steven Satchell & Elaine Worzala & Roberto Dacco', 1998. "Real Interest Regimes and Real Estate Performance: A Comparison of UK and US Markets," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 16(3), pages 339-356.
    16. François Longin & Bruno Solnik, 2001. "Extreme Correlation of International Equity Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 649-676, April.
    17. James K. Maitland-Smith & Chris Brooks, 1999. "Threshold autoregressive and Markov switching models: an application to commercial real estate," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 1-19, January.
    18. Campbell, Rachel & Koedijk, Kees & Kofman, Paul, 2002. "Increased Correlation in Bear markets: A Downside Risk Perspective," CEPR Discussion Papers 3172, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    19. Tsong‐Yue Lai & Ko Wang, 1998. "Appraisal Smoothing: The Other Side of the Story," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(3), pages 511-535, September.
    20. Joseph Gyourko & Donald B. Keim, "undated". "What Does the Stock Market Tell Us About Real Estate Returns? (Revision of 18-91) (Reprint 030)," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 11-92, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    21. David C. Ling & Andy Naranjo, 1999. "The Integration of Commercial Real Estate Markets and Stock Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(3), pages 483-515, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Colin Lizieri & Stephen Satchell & Qi Zhang, 2007. "The Underlying Return‐Generating Factors for REIT Returns: An Application of Independent Component Analysis," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 35(4), pages 569-598, December.
    2. Shi Yafeng & Tao Xiangxing & Shi Yanlong & Zhu Nenghui & Ying Tingting & Peng Xun, 2020. "Can Technical Indicators Provide Information for Future Volatility: International Evidence," Journal of Systems Science and Information, De Gruyter, vol. 8(1), pages 53-66, February.
    3. Leo Michelis & Cathy Ning, 2010. "The dependence structure between the Canadian stock market and the USD/CAD exchange rate: a copula approach," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(3), pages 1016-1039, August.
    4. Abuzayed, Bana & Al-Fayoumi, Nedal & Bouri, Elie, 2020. "Co-movement across european stock and real estate markets," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 189-208.
    5. Vitali Alexeev & Mardi Dungey, 2015. "Equity portfolio diversification with high frequency data," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(7), pages 1205-1215, July.
    6. Renee Fry & Vance L. Martin & Chrismin Tang, 2008. "A New Class Of Tests Of Contagion With Applications To Real Estate Markets," CAMA Working Papers 2008-01, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    7. Andrey Pavlov & Eva Steiner & Susan Wachter, 2018. "The Consequences of REIT Index Membership for Return Patterns," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 46(1), pages 210-250, March.
    8. Yang Deng & Helen X. H. Bao & Pu Gong, 2018. "Increased Tail Dependence in Global Public Real Estate Markets," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 21(2), pages 145-168.
    9. Martin Hoesli & Kustrim Reka, 2013. "Volatility Spillovers, Comovements and Contagion in Securitized Real Estate Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 1-35, July.
    10. Medovikov, Ivan, 2016. "When does the stock market listen to economic news? New evidence from copulas and news wires," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 27-40.
    11. Jamie Alcock & Petra Andrlikova, 2018. "Asymmetric Dependence in Real Estate Investment Trusts: An Asset-Pricing Analysis," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 56(2), pages 183-216, February.
    12. Hui, Eddie Chi-man & Chan, Ka Kwan Kevin, 2014. "The global financial crisis: Is there any contagion between real estate and equity markets?," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 405(C), pages 216-225.
    13. Eddie C.M. Hui & Ka Kwan Kevin Chan, 2013. "The European sovereign debt crisis: contagion across European real estate markets," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(2), pages 87-102, June.
    14. Pin-te Lin & Franz Fuerst, 2014. "The integration of direct real estate and stock markets in Asia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(12), pages 1323-1334, April.
    15. Eddie C. M. Hui & Sheung-Chi Phillip Yam, 2014. "Can we beat the "buy-and-hold" strategy? Analysis on European and American securitized real estate indices," International Journal of Strategic Property Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(1), pages 28-37, March.
    16. Jamie Alcock & Eva Steiner, 2018. "Fundamental Drivers of Dependence in REIT Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 57(1), pages 4-42, July.
    17. Eddie C. M. Hui & Ka Kwan Kevin Chan, 2013. "Contagion across real estate and equity markets during European sovereign debt crisis," International Journal of Strategic Property Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 305-316, September.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. John Knight & Colin Lizieri & Stephen Satchell, 2005. "Diversification When It Hurts? The Joint Distributions of Real Estate and Equity Markets," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2005-16, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    2. Patric H. Hendershott & Thomas G. Thibodeau & Halbert C. Smith, 2009. "Evolution of the American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association1," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 37(4), pages 559-598, December.
    3. repec:prg:jnlpep:v:preprint:id:560:p:1-15 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Mato Njavro & Petra Posedel & Maruška Vizek, 2016. "Regime Switching Behaviour of Real Estate and Equity Prices in Emerging Countries," Prague Economic Papers, Prague University of Economics and Business, vol. 2016(4), pages 396-410.
    5. Kim Hiang Liow, 2006. "Dynamic relationship between stock and property markets," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(5), pages 371-376.
    6. Kole, Erik & Koedijk, Kees & Verbeek, Marno, 2007. "Selecting copulas for risk management," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(8), pages 2405-2423, August.
    7. Tien Foo Sing, 2004. "Common risk factors and risk premia in direct and securitized real estate markets," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(3), pages 189-207, December.
    8. Colin Lizieri & Charles Ward, 2000. "Commercial Real Estate Return Distributions: A Review Of Literature And Empirical Evidence," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2000-01, Henley Business School, Reading University.
    9. Schindler, Felix & Voronkova, Svitlana, 2010. "Linkages between international securitized real estate markets: Further evidence from time-varying and stochastic cointegration," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-051, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    10. Pin-te Lin & Franz Fuerst, 2014. "The integration of direct real estate and stock markets in Asia," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(12), pages 1323-1334, April.
    11. Ozer-Imer, Itir & Ozkan, Ibrahim, 2014. "An empirical analysis of currency volatilities during the recent global financial crisis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 394-406.
    12. Okunev, John & Wilson, Patrick & Zurbruegg, Ralf, 2000. "The Causal Relationship between Real Estate and Stock Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 21(3), pages 251-261, November.
    13. Degryse, H.A. & Elahi, M.A. & Penas, M.F., 2012. "Determinants of Banking System Fragility : A Regional Perspective," Other publications TiSEM 1e72ac2e-21f6-423e-8612-c, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    14. K.W. Chau & Bryan D. MacGregor & Gregory M. Schwann, 2001. "Price discovery in the Hong Kong real estate market," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(3), pages 187-216.
    15. Rodriguez, Juan Carlos, 2007. "Measuring financial contagion: A Copula approach," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 401-423, June.
    16. Su, Chi-Wei, 2011. "Non-linear causality between the stock and real estate markets of Western European countries: Evidence from rank tests," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 845-851, May.
    17. Tsangyao Chang & Xiao-lin Li & Stephen M. Miller & Mehmet Balcilar & Rangan Gupta, 2013. "The Co-Movement and Causality between the U.S. Real Estate and Stock Markets in the Time and Frequency Domains," Working papers 2013-34, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    18. Dimitrios Gounopoulos & Kyriaki Kosmidou & Dimitrios Kousenidis & Victoria Patsika, 2019. "The investigation of the dynamic linkages between real estate market and stock market in Greece," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(7), pages 647-669, May.
    19. Oikarinen, Elias, 2006. "Price Linkages between Stock, Bond and Housing Markets - Evidence from Finnish Data," Discussion Papers 1004, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy.
    20. Camilo Serrano & Martin Hoesli, 2012. "Fractional Cointegration Analysis of Securitized Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 44(3), pages 319-338, April.
    21. Martin Hoesli & Kustrim Reka, 2013. "Volatility Spillovers, Comovements and Contagion in Securitized Real Estate Markets," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 47(1), pages 1-35, July.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:jpropr:v:22:y:2005:i:4:p:309-323. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: http://www.tandfonline.com/RJPR20 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.