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The Underlying Return-Generating Factors for REIT Returns: An Application of Independent Component Analysis

  • Colin Lizieri
  • Stephen Satchell
  • Qi Zhang

Multifactor approaches to real estate returns have emphasized a macro-variables approach in preference to the latent factor approach originally used in arbitrage pricing theory. Use of high-frequency data, trading strategies and growing emphasis on the risks of extreme events makes the macrovariable procedure problematic. This article explores an alternative to the principal components analysis approach: independent components analysis (ICA). ICA seeks independence and maximizes a chosen risk parameter. We apply an ICA procedure based on a kurtosis maximization algorithm to real estate investment trust (REIT) data. The results show that ICA successfully captures kurtosis characteristics of REIT returns, offering possibilities for developing of risk management strategies that are sensitive to extreme events and tail distributions, augmenting traditional mean-variance approaches. Copyright 2007 American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association

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Article provided by American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association in its journal Real Estate Economics.

Volume (Year): 35 (2007)
Issue (Month): 4 (December)
Pages: 569-598

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Handle: RePEc:bla:reesec:v:35:y:2007:i:4:p:569-598
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  1. Foort Hamelink & Martin Hoesli, 2004. "Maximum drawdown and the allocation to real estate," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(1), pages 5-29, January.
  2. Thomas E. McCue & John L. Kling, 1994. "Real Estate Returns and the Macroeconomy: Some Empirical Evidence from Real Estate Investment Trust," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 9(3), pages 277-288.
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  8. Downs, David H, 2000. "Assessing the Real Estate Pricing Puzzle: A Diagnostic Application of the Stochastic Discounting Factor to the Distribution of REIT Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 155-75, March.
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  10. Ling, David C & Naranjo, Andy & Ryngaert, Michael D, 2000. "The Predictability of Equity REIT Returns: Time Variation and Economic Significance," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 117-36, March.
  11. K.C. Chan & Patric H. Hendershott & Anthony B. Sanders, 1990. "Risk and Return on Real Estate: Evidence from Equity REITs," NBER Working Papers 3311, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  14. Shaun Bond & Soosung Hwang & Zhenguo Lin & Kerry Vandell, 2007. "Marketing Period Risk in a Portfolio Context: Theory and Empirical Estimates from the UK Commercial Real Estate Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(4), pages 447-461, May.
  15. Colin Lizieri & Charles Ward, 2000. "Commercial Real Estate Return Distributions: A Review Of Literature And Empirical Evidence," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2000-01, Henley Business School, Reading University.
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  17. Young, Michael S & Graff, Richard A, 1995. "Real Estate Is Not Normal: A Fresh Look at Real Estate Return Distributions," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 225-59, May.
  18. John Knight & Colin Lizieri & Stephen Satchell, 2005. "Diversification When It Hurts? The Joint Distributions of Real Estate and Equity Markets," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2005-16, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  19. Michael Young, 2008. "Revisiting Non-normal Real Estate Return Distributions by Property Type in the U.S," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 233-248, February.
  20. Chen, Su-Jane & Jordan, Bradford D., 1993. "Some empirical tests in the arbitrage pricing theory: Macro variables vs. derived factors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 65-89, February.
  21. David C. Ling & Andy Naranjo, 1999. "The Integration of Commercial Real Estate Markets and Stock Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(3), pages 483-515.
  22. Ling, David C & Naranjo, Andy, 1997. "Economic Risk Factors and Commercial Real Estate Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 283-307, May.
  23. Su-Jane Chen & Cheng-Ho Hsieh & Bradford D. Jordan, 1997. "Real Estate and the Arbitrage Pricing Theory: Macrovariables vs. Derived Factors," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 25(3), pages 506-523.
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