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The Underlying Return Generating Factors for REIT Returns: An Application of Independent Component Analysis

  • Colin Lizieri

    ()

    (Department of Real Estate & Planning, University of Reading)

  • Stephen Satchell
  • Qi Zhang

Multi-factor approaches to analysis of real estate returns have, since the pioneering work of Chan, Hendershott and Sanders (1990), emphasised a macro-variables approach in preference to the latent factor approach that formed the original basis of the arbitrage pricing theory. With increasing use of high frequency data and trading strategies and with a growing emphasis on the risks of extreme events, the macro-variable procedure has some deficiencies. This paper explores a third way, with the use of an alternative to the standard principal components approach – independent components analysis (ICA). ICA seeks higher moment independence and maximises in relation to a chosen risk parameter. We apply an ICA based on kurtosis maximisation to weekly US REIT data using a kurtosis maximising algorithm. The results show that ICA is successful in capturing the kurtosis characteristics of REIT returns, offering possibilities for the development of risk management strategies that are sensitive to extreme events and tail distributions.

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Paper provided by Henley Business School, Reading University in its series Real Estate & Planning Working Papers with number rep-wp2006-12.

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Length: 26 pages
Date of creation: 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:rdg:repxwp:rep-wp2006-12
Contact details of provider: Postal: PO Box 218, Whiteknights, Reading, Berks, RG6 6AA
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Web page: http://www.henley.reading.ac.uk/

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  1. K. C. Chan & Patric H. Hendershott & Anthony B. Sanders, 1990. "Risk and Return on Real Estate: Evidence from Equity REITs," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 18(4), pages 431-452.
  2. John Okunev & Pat Wilson, 1995. "Using Non-Linear Tests to Examine Integration Between Real Estate and Equity Markets," Working Paper Series 47, Finance Discipline Group, UTS Business School, University of Technology, Sydney.
  3. Su-Jane Chen & Cheng-Ho Hsieh & Bradford D. Jordan, 1997. "Real Estate and the Arbitrage Pricing Theory: Macrovariables vs. Derived Factors," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 25(3), pages 506-523.
  4. David C. Ling & Andy Naranjo, 1999. "The Integration of Commercial Real Estate Markets and Stock Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(3), pages 483-515.
  5. John Knight & Colin Lizieri & Stephen Satchell, 2005. "Diversification When It Hurts? The Joint Distributions of Real Estate and Equity Markets," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2005-16, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  6. Knight, John & Lizieri, Colin & Satchell, Stephen, 2005. "Diversification When It Hurts? The Joint Distributions of Property and Other Asset Classes," ERES eres2005_228, European Real Estate Society (ERES).
  7. Ling, David C & Naranjo, Andy & Ryngaert, Michael D, 2000. "The Predictability of Equity REIT Returns: Time Variation and Economic Significance," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 117-36, March.
  8. Chen, Su-Jane & Jordan, Bradford D., 1993. "Some empirical tests in the arbitrage pricing theory: Macro variables vs. derived factors," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 65-89, February.
  9. Robert A. Pari & Son-Nan Chen, 1984. "An Empirical Test Of The Arbitrage Pricing Theory," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 7(2), pages 121-130, 06.
  10. Colin Lizieri & Charles Ward, 2000. "Commercial Real Estate Return Distributions: A Review Of Literature And Empirical Evidence," Real Estate & Planning Working Papers rep-wp2000-01, Henley Business School, Reading University.
  11. Michael Young, 2008. "Revisiting Non-normal Real Estate Return Distributions by Property Type in the U.S," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 233-248, February.
  12. Foort HAMELINK & Martin HOESLI, 2003. "Maximum Drawdown and the Allocation to Real Estate," FAME Research Paper Series rp87, International Center for Financial Asset Management and Engineering.
  13. Downs, David H, 2000. "Assessing the Real Estate Pricing Puzzle: A Diagnostic Application of the Stochastic Discounting Factor to the Distribution of REIT Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 155-75, March.
  14. Thomas E. McCue & John L. Kling, 1994. "Real Estate Returns and the Macroeconomy: Some Empirical Evidence from Real Estate Investment Trust," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 9(3), pages 277-288.
  15. Young, Michael S & Graff, Richard A, 1995. "Real Estate Is Not Normal: A Fresh Look at Real Estate Return Distributions," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 225-59, May.
  16. Chris Brooks & Sotiris Tsolacos, 1999. "The impact of economic and financial factors on UK property performance," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 139-152, January.
  17. Chan, Su Han & Erickson, John & Wang, Ko, 2002. "Real Estate Investment Trusts: Structure: Structure, Performance, and Investment Opportunities," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195155341, March.
  18. Sheridan Titman & Arthur Warga, 1986. "Risk and the Performance of Real Estate Investment Trusts: A Multiple Index Approach," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(3), pages 414-431.
  19. Ling, David C & Naranjo, Andy, 1997. "Economic Risk Factors and Commercial Real Estate Returns," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 14(3), pages 283-307, May.
  20. Shaun Bond & Soosung Hwang & Zhenguo Lin & Kerry Vandell, 2007. "Marketing Period Risk in a Portfolio Context: Theory and Empirical Estimates from the UK Commercial Real Estate Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 34(4), pages 447-461, May.
  21. Ling, David C. & Ryngaert, Michael, 1997. "Valuation uncertainty, institutional involvement, and the underpricing of IPOs: The case of REITs," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 433-456, March.
  22. Roll, Richard & Ross, Stephen A, 1980. " An Empirical Investigation of the Arbitrage Pricing Theory," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(5), pages 1073-1103, December.
  23. John Knight & Colin Lizieri & Stephen Satchell, 2005. "Diversification when It Hurts? The Joint Distributions of Real Estate and Equity Markets1," Journal of Property Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(4), pages 309-323, December.
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