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The Association Between Individual Income and Remaining Life Expectancy at the Age of 65 in the Netherlands

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  • Adriaan Kalwij
  • Rob Alessie
  • Marike Knoef

Abstract

This article quantifies the association between individual income and remaining life expectancy at the statutory retirement age (65) in the Netherlands. For this purpose, we estimate a mortality risk model using a large administrative data set that covers the 1996–2007 period. Besides age and marital status, the model includes as covariates individual and spouse’s income as well as a random individual specific effect. It thus allows for dynamic selection based on both observed and unobserved characteristics. We find that conditional on marital status, individual income is about equally strong and negatively associated with mortality risk for men and women and that spouse’s income is only weakly associated with mortality risk for women. For both men and women, we quantify remaining life expectancy at age 65 for low-income individuals as approximately 2.5 years less than that for high-income individuals. Copyright Population Association of America 2013

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  • Adriaan Kalwij & Rob Alessie & Marike Knoef, 2013. "The Association Between Individual Income and Remaining Life Expectancy at the Age of 65 in the Netherlands," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(1), pages 181-206, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:demogr:v:50:y:2013:i:1:p:181-206
    DOI: 10.1007/s13524-012-0139-3
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    Cited by:

    1. Adriaan Kalwij, 2019. "The socio-economic status gradient in median lifespan by birth cohorts: Evidence from Dutch Olympic athletes born between 1852 and 1947," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 14(12), pages 1-11, December.
    2. Bauer, Thomas K. & Giesecke, Matthias & Janisch, Laura M., 2017. "Forced migration and mortality," Ruhr Economic Papers 713, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    3. Juan Manuel Pérez-Salamero González & Marta Regúlez Castillo & Carlos Vidal-Meliá, 2021. "Mortality and life expectancy trends for male pensioners by pension income level," Documentos de Trabajo del ICAE 2021-02, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico.
    4. Euwals, Rob & Trevisan, Elisabetta, 2014. "Early Retirement and Financial Incentives: Differences Between High and Low Wage Earners," IZA Discussion Papers 8466, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    5. Vermeer, Niels & Mastrogiacomo, Mauro & Van Soest, Arthur, 2016. "Demanding occupations and the retirement age," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 159-170.
    6. Nils Grevenbrock & Max Groneck & Alexander Ludwig & Alexander Zimper, 2021. "Cognition, Optimism, And The Formation Of Age‐Dependent Survival Beliefs," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 62(2), pages 887-918, May.
    7. Vesile Kutlu-Koc & Adriaan Kalwij, 2017. "Individual Survival Expectations and Actual Mortality: Evidence from Dutch Survey and Administrative Data," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 33(4), pages 509-532, October.
    8. Juan Manuel Pérez-Salamero González & Marta Regúlez-Castillo & Carlos Vidal-Meliá, 2021. "Differences in life expectancy between self-employed workers and paid employees when retirement pensioners: evidence from Spanish social security records," Documentos de Trabajo del ICAE 2021-04, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico.
    9. Raun Ooijen & Rob Alessie & Adriaan Kalwij, 2015. "Saving Behavior and Portfolio Choice After Retirement," De Economist, Springer, vol. 163(3), pages 353-404, September.
    10. Marlies Bär & Bram Wouterse & Carlos Riumallo Herl & Tom Van Ourti & Eddy Van Doorslaer, 2021. "Diverging Mortality Inequality Trends among Young and Old in the Netherlands," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 42(1), pages 79-101, March.
    11. Giesecke, Matthias, 2019. "The retirement mortality puzzle: Evidence from a regression discontinuity design," Ruhr Economic Papers 800, RWI - Leibniz-Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-University Bochum, TU Dortmund University, University of Duisburg-Essen.
    12. Michele Belloni & Rob Alessie & Adriaan Kalwij & Chiara Marinacci, 2013. "Lifetime income and old age mortality risk in Italy over two decades," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 29(45), pages 1261-1298.
    13. Thomas K. Bauer & Matthias Giesecke & Laura M. Janisch, 2019. "The Impact of Forced Migration on Mortality: Evidence From German Pension Insurance Records," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 56(1), pages 25-47, February.
    14. Anna Samarina & Jakob De Haan, 2014. "Right On Target: Exploring The Factors Leading To Inflation Targeting Adoption," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 32(2), pages 372-389, April.
    15. Virginia Zarulli, 2016. "Unobserved Heterogeneity of Frailty in the Analysis of Socioeconomic Differences in Health and Mortality," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 32(1), pages 55-72, February.

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