Lifetime income and old age mortality risk in Italy over two decades
European studies highlight a widening of relative inequalities in general mortality by socioeconomic status from the 1970s to the 1990s. Few studies are available for Southern European countries; they show that these countries represent an exception to these trends. Available evidence on this for Italy is for a specific city only and nationwide evidence does not exist yet. This paper examines the association between lifetime income and old age mortality risk, referred to as the income–mortality gradient, in Italy during the 1980s and 1990s. We investigate the shape of the gradient. Most importantly, we analyze the evolution of the gradient between these two decades. We use data drawn from an administrative pension archive held by the main Italian social security institution and proxy individual lifetime income with pension income. We use non-standard Cox proportional hazard models, where the positions and number of the knots in the spline function for income are determined by the data. The shape of the income–mortality gradient shows two discontinuities for males and one for females; these kink points are situated almost at the same percentiles of the income distribution during the 1980s and the 1990s. The estimated associations are negative and stronger at higher income levels. The income–mortality gradient widens over time for males and remains unchanged for females. Accounting for regional effects explains most of the widening in the gradient over time for males. Our findings show for both males and females that mortality risk decreases with income. Once controlled for regional differences, and in contrast with the trends observed in many other European countries, the relative difference in mortality risk between high and low-income individuals is rather stable over time in Italy.
|Date of creation:||Oct 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: 39 011 6705040
Fax: +39 011 6705042
Web page: http://www.cerp.carloalberto.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Massimiliano BRATTI, 2001.
"Labour Force Participation and Marital Fertility of Italian Women: The Role of Education,"
154, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
- Massimiliano Bratti, 2003. "Labour force participation and marital fertility of Italian women: The role of education," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 525-554, 08.
- Bratti, Massimiliano, 2002. "Labour Force Participation and Marital Fertility of Italian Women: The Role of Education," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 34, Royal Economic Society.
- Belloni, Michele & Alessie, Rob, 2009.
"The importance of financial incentives on retirement choices: New evidence for Italy,"
Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 578-588, October.
- M. Belloni & R. Alessie, 2008. "The Importance of Financial Incentives on Retirement Choices: New Evidence for Italy," Working Papers 08-10, Utrecht School of Economics.
- Franco Peracchi, 2008.
"Height and Economic Development in Italy, 1730–1980,"
CEIS Research Paper
108, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 10 Jul 2008.
- Franco Peracchi, 2008. "Height and Economic Development in Italy, 1730-1980," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(2), pages 475-81, May.
- Daniel Sullivan & Till von Wachter, 2009. "Average Earnings and Long-Term Mortality: Evidence from Administrative Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 133-38, May.
- Jennifer Montez & Robert Hummer & Mark Hayward, 2012. "Educational Attainment and Adult Mortality in the United States: A Systematic Analysis of Functional Form," Demography, Springer, vol. 49(1), pages 315-336, February.
- Dominik H. Enste & Friedrich Schneider, 2000. "Shadow Economies: Size, Causes, and Consequences," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(1), pages 77-114, March.
- Hans-Martin von Gaudecker & Rembrandt D. Scholz, 2006.
"Lifetime earnings and life expectancy,"
MPIDR Working Papers
WP-2006-008, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
- Hans-Martin von Gaudecker & Rembrandt D. Scholz, 2007. "Differential mortality by lifetime earnings in Germany," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 17(4), pages 83-108, August.
- Hans-Martin von Gaudecker & Rembrandt D. Scholz, 2006. "Lifetime Earnings and Life Expectancy," MEA discussion paper series 06102, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
- von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin & Scholz, Rembrandt, 2006. "Lifetime Earnings and Life Expectancy," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 07-05, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim;Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
- Cristia, Julian P., 2009.
"Rising mortality and life expectancy differentials by lifetime earnings in the United States,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 984-995, September.
- Julian Cristia, 2009. "Rising Mortality and Life Expectancy Differentials by Lifetime Earnings in the United States," Research Department Publications 4607, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
- Harriet Orcutt Duleep, 1986. "Measuring the Effect of Income on Adult Mortality Using Longitudinal Administrative Record Data," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 21(2), pages 238-251.
- van den Berg, Gerard J. & Lindeboom, Maarten & Portrait, France, 2011.
"Conjugal bereavement effects on health and mortality at advanced ages,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 774-794, July.
- van den Berg, Gerard J. & Lindeboom, Maarten & Portrait, France, 2006. "Conjugal Bereavement Effects on Health and Mortality at Advanced Ages," IZA Discussion Papers 2358, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Michele Belloni & Carlo Maccheroni, 2013. "Actuarial Fairness When Longevity Increases: An Evaluation of the Italian Pension System," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(4), pages 638-674, October.
- Agar Brugiavini & Vincenzo Galasso, 2003.
"The Social Security Reform Process in Italy: Where do We Stand?,"
wp052, University of Michigan, Michigan Retirement Research Center.
- Brugiavini, Agar & Galasso, Vincenzo, 2004. "The social security reform process in Italy: where do we stand?," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(02), pages 165-195, July.
- Adriaan Kalwij & Rob Alessie & Marike Knoef, 2013. "The Association Between Individual Income and Remaining Life Expectancy at the Age of 65 in the Netherlands," Demography, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 181-206, February.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:crp:wpaper:129. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Silvia Maero)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.