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Historical Inequality and Intergenerational Educational Mobility: The Dynamics of Change in Rural Punjab

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  • Ali Cheema

    () (Associate Professor of Economics, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Development and Economic Alternatives, and a Fellow, Center of Economic Research in Pakistan.)

  • Muhammad Farooq Naseer

    () (Assistant Professor of Economics, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Pakistan)

Abstract

We analyze educational attainment over three generations in rural Punjab, Pakistan, to determine if the fruits of post-independence development have translated into comparable rates of educational and social opportunities for all strata in the village economy. We show that the differences in class status institutionalized at the time of colonial village settlement lead to a sustained divergence in the rate of intergenerational educational mobility, with limited mobility for nonproprietary and marginalized groups compared to proprietary groups. Inter-class differences in the rate of mobility are higher in proprietary landed estates where the colonial state had concentrated land rights and governance in the hands of landowners compared to crown estates that had a more egalitarian arrangement of land rights and governance. We find that the divergence in inter-class mobility is worrying, so much so that the current generation of marginalized households appears to have fallen a generation behind in terms of educational attainment, even though it resides in the same villages as the proprietary households.

Suggested Citation

  • Ali Cheema & Muhammad Farooq Naseer, 2013. "Historical Inequality and Intergenerational Educational Mobility: The Dynamics of Change in Rural Punjab," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(Special E), pages 211-231, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:18:y:2013:i:sp:p:211-231
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Black, Sandra E. & Devereux, Paul J., 2011. "Recent Developments in Intergenerational Mobility," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier.
    2. Mehtabul Azam & Vipul Bhatt, 2015. "Like Father, Like Son? Intergenerational Educational Mobility in India," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 52(6), pages 1929-1959, December.
    3. Banerjee, Abhijit V & Duflo, Esther, 2003. "Inequality and Growth: What Can the Data Say?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 267-299, September.
    4. Kaivan Munshi & Mark Rosenzweig, 2006. "Traditional Institutions Meet the Modern World: Caste, Gender, and Schooling Choice in a Globalizing Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(4), pages 1225-1252, September.
    5. S. Narayan, 2009. "India," Chapters,in: The Political Economy of Trade Reform in Emerging Markets, chapter 7 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Inequality; education; development; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • I25 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Education and Economic Development

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