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Foreign direct investment and entrepreneurship: gender differences across international economic freedom and taxation


  • Rajeev K. Goel

    () (Kiel Institute for the World Economy
    Illinois State University)


Using recent cross-national data, this paper examines the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on entrepreneurship activity. The impact of FDI on entrepreneurship is not clear a priori, with possibilities of both a negative effect (crowding out) and a positive effect (synergy or complementarity via spillovers). Results find support for the crowding out effect; however, this effect varies across nations with different prevalence of entrepreneurship. Another focus of this work is on gender differences. The crowding out effect is stronger for the full sample rather than the subsample of female entrepreneurship. This finding stands up to a battery of robustness checks. Policy implications are discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Rajeev K. Goel, 2018. "Foreign direct investment and entrepreneurship: gender differences across international economic freedom and taxation," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 887-897, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:50:y:2018:i:4:d:10.1007_s11187-017-9914-2
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-017-9914-2

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    7. Knack, Stephen & Keefer, Philip, 1995. "Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Indicators," MPRA Paper 23118, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    14. Peter Rosa & Alison Dawson, 2006. "Gender and the commercialization of university science: academic founders of spinout companies," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(4), pages 341-366, July.
    15. Rajeev Goel & James Saunoris & Xingyuan Zhang, 2015. "Innovation and underground entrepreneurship," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 40(5), pages 800-820, October.
    16. Fischer, Eileen M. & Reuber, A. Rebecca & Dyke, Lorraine S., 1993. "A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 151-168, March.
    17. Rajeev K. Goel & James W. Saunoris, 2017. "Dynamics Of Knowledge Spillovers From Patents To Entrepreneurship: Evidence Across Entrepreneurship Types," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 35(4), pages 700-715, October.
    18. Maria Minniti & Wim Naudé, 2010. "Introduction: What Do We Know About The Patterns and Determinants of Female Entrepreneurship Across Countries?," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan;European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI), vol. 22(3), pages 277-293, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rajeev K. Goel & James W. Saunoris, 2020. "Does income inequality sand or grease the wheels of entrepreneurial activity? International evidence," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(2), pages 138-160, June.
    2. Sanghyun Hong & W. Robert Reed & Bifei Tian & Tingting Wu & Gen Chen, 2019. "Does FDI Promote Entrepreneurial Activities? A Meta-Analysis," Working Papers in Economics 19/06, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
    3. Marzieh Abolhassani & Seçil Hülya Danakol, 2019. "Wage and competition channels of foreign direct investment and new firm entry," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 53(4), pages 935-960, December.

    More about this item


    Entrepreneurship; Gender; Foreign direct investment; Taxation; Economic freedom;

    JEL classification:

    • M16 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Administration - - - International Business Administration
    • F6 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization


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