Occupational structures across 25 EU countries: the importance of industry structure and technology in old and new EU countries
This paper analyzes the occupational structures of 25 European Union countries during the period 2000-2004. Shift-share analyses have been used to decompose cross-country differences in occupational structure into within industry and between industry effects. The static analysis for 2004 shows that the new Member States employ a lower share of skilled workers because their industry structure is biased towards less skill-intensive industries and because they use fewer skills within industries. The differences in the shares of (high-skilled) non-production workers are dominated by the between (industrial) effect. In contrast, the dynamic analysis of 2000-2004 shows that changes in the share of high-skilled non-production workers are mostly driven by within industry changes, which are probably related to skill-biased technological change. The results indicate the weakening of this process, at least for non-production workers. The diffusion of the increased demand for skills within sectors is witnessed for the higher income EU12 country group, but less strongly for the EU25 country group.
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