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Institutional Determinants of School Efficiency and Equity: German States as a Microcosm for OECD Countries

  • Ludger Woessmann

    ()

    (CESifo and IZA Munich)

Cross-country evidence on student achievement might be hampered by omitted country characteristics such as language or legal differences. This paper uses cross-state variation in Germany, whose sixteen states share the same language and legal system, but pursue different education policies. Education production function models are estimated using state-level PISA-E data, where possible pooling three subjects and three waves to obtain up to 138 test-score observations. The same results found previously across countries holdwithin Germany:Higher mean student performance is associated with central exams, private school operation, and socio- economic background, but not with spending, while higher equality of opportunity is associated with reduced tracking. In models that pool German states with OECD countries and combine up to 54 state and country observations, these institutional determinants do not differ significantly between the sample of German states and the sample of OECD countries, indicating that the existing cross-country evidence is not substantially biased by unobserved countryspecific factors.

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Article provided by Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics in its journal Journal of Economics and Statistics.

Volume (Year): 230 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 234-270

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Handle: RePEc:jns:jbstat:v:230:y:2010:i:2:p:234-270
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  1. West, Martin R. & Woessmann, Ludger, 2008. ""Every Catholic Child in a Catholic School": Historical Resistance to State Schooling, Contemporary Private Competition, and Student Achievement across Countries," IZA Discussion Papers 3818, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Fuchs, Thomas & Wößmann, Ludger, 2007. "What accounts for international differences in student performance? A re-examination using PISA data," Munich Reprints in Economics 20303, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  3. Fertig, Michael & Wright, Robert E., 2003. "School Quality, Educational Attainment and Aggregation Bias," RWI Discussion Papers 9, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (RWI).
  4. John Bishop & Ludger Wossmann, 2004. "Institutional Effects in a Simple Model of Educational Production," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 17-38.
  5. Bauer, Philipp & Riphahn, Regina T., 2006. "Timing of school tracking as a determinant of intergenerational transmission of education," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 90-97, April.
  6. Wößmann, Ludger, 2005. "Educational production in Europe," Munich Reprints in Economics 19656, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  7. Eric A. Hanushek & Steven G. Rivkin & Lori L. Taylor, 1996. "Aggregation and the Estimated Effects of School Resources," NBER Working Papers 5548, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Ammermüller, Andreas, 2005. "Educational Opportunities and the Role of Institutions," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-44, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  9. Andrei Shleifer, 1998. "State versus Private Ownership," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 133-150, Fall.
  10. Ludger Woessmann, 2009. "International Evidence on School Tracking: A Review," CESifo DICE Report, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 7(1), pages 26-34, 04.
  11. Gabriela Schütz & Heinrich Ursprung & Ludger Woessmann, 2005. "Education Policy and Equality of Opportunity," CESifo Working Paper Series 1518, CESifo Group Munich.
  12. Hendrik Jürges & Kerstin Schneider & Felix Büchel, 2003. "The Effect of Central Exit Examinations on Student Achievement: Quasi-experimental Evidence from TIMSS Germany," CESifo Working Paper Series 939, CESifo Group Munich.
  13. Gundlach, Erich & Wossmann, Ludger & Gmelin, Jens, 2001. "The Decline of Schooling Productivity in OECD Countries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(471), pages C135-47, May.
  14. Jong-Wha Lee & Robert J. Barro, 1997. "Schooling Quality in a Cross Section of Countries," NBER Working Papers 6198, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Schütz, Gabriela & Ursprung, Heinrich W. & Wößmann, Ludger, 2008. "Education policy and equality of opportunity," Munich Reprints in Economics 19901, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  16. Hendrik Jürges & Kerstin Schneider & Felix Büchel, 2005. "The Effect Of Central Exit Examinations On Student Achievement: Quasi-Experimental Evidence From TIMSS Germany," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(5), pages 1134-1155, 09.
  17. Hendrik Jürges & Wolfram F. Richter & Kerstin Schneider, 2005. "Teacher Quality and Incentives: Theoretical and Empirical Effects of Standards on Teacher Quality," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 61(3), pages 298-, November.
  18. Wößmann, Ludger, 2007. "International evidence on school competition, autonomy, and accountability: A review," Munich Reprints in Economics 19649, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  19. Hendrik Jürges & Wolfram F. Richter & Kerstin Schneider, 2004. "Teacher Quality and Incentives: Theoretical and Empirical Effects of Standards on Teacher Quality," CESifo Working Paper Series 1296, CESifo Group Munich.
  20. Martin R. West & Ludger Woessmann, 2008. "“Every Catholic Child in a Catholic School”: Historical Resistance to State Schooling, Contemporary Private Competition, and Student Achievement across Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 2332, CESifo Group Munich.
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